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1989–Physicist and inventor, William Shockley, dies of prostate cancer in Stanford, California, at age 79. Along with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, Shockley co-invented the transistor, for which all three were awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics. Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s led to California's "Silicon Valley" becoming a hotbed of electronics innovation.

BC 30–Egyptian Queen, Cleopatra, dies of suicide from an asp bite in Alexandria, Egypt, at age 39. She was the last active pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt, briefly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion. After her reign, Egypt became a province of the recently established Roman Empire.

875–Louis II of Italy dies near near Ghedi (present-day province of Bresci, Lombardy, Italy), at age 50.

1099–The Battle of Ascalon Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid forces led by Al-Afdal Shahanshah. This is considered the last engagement of the First Crusade.

1121–The Georgian Army under King David IV wins a decisive victory over the famous Seljuk commander, Ilghazi.

1164–Nur ad-Din Zangi defeats the Crusader armies of the County of Tripoli and the Principality of Antioch.

1319–Rudolf I, Duke of Bavaria, dies in the Kingdom of England, at age 44.

1323–The Signature of the Treaty of Nöteborg is signed between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia), that regulates the border between the two countries for the first time.

1424–Emperor Yongle of China dies from a series of minor strokes in Yumuchuan, Inner Mongolia, at age 64. He was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.

1484–Pope Sixtus IV dies in Rome, Papal States, at age 70.

1499–The first engagement of the Battle of Zonchio between Venetian and Ottoman fleets take place.

1503–Christian III of Denmark is born at Gottorf Castle in Schleswig, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. During his reign, he established Lutheranism as the state religion within his realms as part of the Protestant Reformation.

1624–The president of Louis XIII of France's royal council is arrested, leaving Cardinal Richelieu in the role of the King's principal minister.

1676–Praying Indian John Alderman shoots and kills Metacomet, the Wampanoag war chief, ending King Philip's War.

1687–In the Battle of Mohács, Charles of Lorraine defeats the Ottoman Empire.

1689–Pope Innocent XI dies after a long period of ill health due to kidney stones in Rome, Papal States, at age 78.

1737–French chef, Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, is born in Montdidier, France. he was a nutrituon and health researcher. He is best remembered as a promoter of the potato as a food source. Parmentier also founded a breadmaking school and studied the preservation of food, including the use of refrigeration.

1762–George IV of the United Kingdom is born George Augustus Frederick at St James's Palace, London, England.

1765–The Treaty of Allahabad is signed. It marks the political and constitutional involvement and the beginning of Company rule in India.

1781–Robert Mills, designer of the Washington Monument, is born in Charleston, South Carolina.

1793–In France, the Rhône and Loire départments are created when the former département of Rhône-et-Loire is split into two.

1802–Businessman, John Cadbury, is born in Birmingham, England. He founded the Cadbury Company. He developed an emulsification process to make solid chocolate, creating the modern chocolate bar.

1806–Santiago de Liniers, first Count of Buenos Aires, re-takes the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the first British invasion.

1813–Politician, Samuel Osgood, dies in New York, New York, at age 66. He served in the Massachusetts and New York State legislatures, represented Massachusetts in the Continental Congress, and was the first Postmaster General of the United States, serving during George Washington's first term.

1827–Poet, mystic, and artist, William Blake, dies in Charing Cross, London, England, at age 69.

1831–French intervention forces William I of the Netherlands to abandon his attempt to suppress the Belgian Revolution.

1831–Theosophist, Helena Blavatsky, is born Yelena Petrovna von Hahn in Yekaterinoslav, Russian Empire. She was an occultist, spirit medium, and author who co-founded the Theosophical Society in New York City with Henry Steel Olcott and William Quan Judge in 1875. She developed an interest in Western esotericism during her teenage years. According to her later claims, in 1849, she embarked on a series of world travels, visiting Europe, the Americas, and India. During this period, she encountered a group of spiritual adepts, the "Masters of the Ancient Wisdom," who sent her to Shigatse, Tibet, where they trained her to develop her own psychic powers. In 1877, she published Isis Unveiled, a book outlining her Theosophical world-view. She later published The Secret Doctrine, a commentary on what she claimed were ancient Tibetan manuscripts; as well as two further books, The Key to Theosophy and The Voice of the Silence.

1851–Isaac Singer is granted a patent for his sewing machine.

1852–Priest, Michael J. McGivney, is born in Waterbury, Connecticut. He founded The Knights of Columbus. It developed through the 20th century as the world's largest Catholic fraternal organization.

1856–Businessman and philanthropist, Diamond Jim Brady, is born James Buchanan Brady in New York, New York. Known for his penchant for jewels, especially diamonds, he collected precious stones and jewelry in excess of $2 million (equivalent to approximately $57,576,000 in 2016 dollars).

1860–Klara Hitler, mother of Adolf Hitler, is born Klara Pölzl in Spital, Weitra, Waldviertel, Austrian Empire.

1861–Businessman, Eliphalet Remington, dies in Ilion, New York, at age 67. He designed the Remington rifle and founded what is now known as the Remington Arms Co., L.L.C.

1872–Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein is born Franziska Josepha Louise Augusta Marie Christina Helena at Cumberland Lodge, Old Windsor Great Park, England. She was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria.

1877–The first sound recording is made. Inventor Thomas Alva Edison records “Mary Had a Little Lamb.”

1877–Asaph Hall discovers Mars’ moon, Deimos.

1881–Film producer and director, Cecil B. DeMille, is born in Ashfield, Massachusetts. (The “B” stands for Blount.) Among his epic films are two versions of The Ten Commandments (1923 and 1956), The King of Kings, Cleopatra, Samson and Delilah, and The Greatest Show on Earth.

1883–The last quagga dies at the Artis Magistra zoo in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

1883–Actress, Marion Lorne, is born Marion Lorne MacDougall in West Pittston, Pennsylvania. She is best known for the role of Aunt Clara on the TV sitcom Bewitched. She appeared in the films Strangers on a Train and The Graduate. She was married to playwright, Walter C. Hackett.

1892–Actor and director, Alfred Lunt, is born Alfred Davis Lunt, Jr. in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He is known for his long-time professional partnership with his wife, actress Lynn Fontanne. Broadway's Lunt-Fontanne Theatre was named for them. The Lunts appeared together in more than 20 plays. The couple made two films together: The Guardsman, in which they starred, and Hollywood Canteen, in which they had cameos as themselves. In 1958, they retired from the stage. On Broadway, Alfred Lunt appeared in Clarence, Design for Living, Taming of the Shrew, Idiot’s Delight, and The Seagull.

1898–An Armistice ends the Spanish-American War.

1898–The Hawaiian flag is lowered from ‘Iolani Palace in an elaborate annexation ceremony, and replaced with the flag of the United States to signify the transfer of sovereignty from the Republic of Hawaii to the United States.

1902–Politician, Mohammad Hatta, is born at Fort de Kock, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. He was the first Vice President of Indonesia.

1907–Physician and politician, Benjamin (Henry) Sheares, is born in Singapore, Straits Settlements (present-day Singapore). He was the second President of Singapore.

1908–The Ford Model T is introduced.

1908–Comedian, Joe Besser, is born in St. Louis, Missouri. He is best known for his brief stint as a member of The Three Stooges in movie short subjects (1957-1959). He appeared in the films Africa Screams, The Desert Hawk, Say One for Me, The Errand Boy, and Which Way to the Front?

1910–Journalist and politician, Yusof bin Ishak, is born in Terong, Taiping, Perak, Federated Malay States (present-day Malaysia). He was the first President of Singapore.

1910–Actress, Jane (Waddington) Wyatt, is born in Mahwah, New Jersey. She is best known for the role of Margaret Anderson on the TV series Father Knows Best. She appeared in the films Great Expectations, Lost Horizon, Gentleman’s Agreement, The Man Who Cheated Himself, Never Too Late, Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, and Amityville 4.

1911–Actor, Cantinflas, is born Mario Fortino Alfonso Moreno Reyes in Mexico City, Mexico. He invented the meaningless name "Cantinflas" to prevent his parents from knowing he was in the entertainment business, which they considered a shameful occupation. To audiences in the United States, he is best known for his appearance in Around the World in 80 Days. He also appeared in the films The Magician, The Genius, I Am a Fugitive, The Three Musketeers, Pepe, and The Great Sex War.

1914–The United Kingdom declares war on Austria-Hungary and the countries of the British Empire follow suit.

1914–Engineer, John Philip Holland, dies in Newark, New Jersey, at age 74. He developed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the U.S. Navy, and the first Royal Navy submarine, the Holland 1. He is widely regarded as the “father of the modern submarine” for his designs.

1915–Dancer and choreographer, Michael Kidd, is born Milton Greenwald in New York, New York. His career spanned five decades and he staged some of the leading Broadway and film musicals of the 1940s and 1950s. He is best known for his athletic dance numbers in Seven Brides for Seven Brothers.

1918–Music producer and promoter, Sid Bernstein, is born in New York, New York. He changed the American music scene in the 1960s, by bringing The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Herman's Hermits, The Moody Blues, and The Kinks to America. He was the first impresario to organize rock concerts at sports stadiums.

1923–A portable movie camera is advertised for sale by the RCA Victor Company.

1925–Norris (Dewar) McWhirter, co-founder of The Guinness Book of Records (with his twin brother, Ross), is born in Winchmore Hill, London, England. He was a writer, political activist, and co-founder of The Freedom Association.

1926–Actor and director, John Derek, is born Derek Delevan Harris in Hollywood, California. He appeared in the films Since You Went Away, I'll Be Seeing You, A Double Life, Knock on Any Door, All the King's Men, The Ten Commnandments, and Exodus. His father was actor-director, Lawson Harris. He was married to actresses, Ursula Andress, Linda Evans, and Bo Derek.

1927–Country singer, Porter (Wayne) Wagoner, is born in West Plains, Missouri. Known as “Mr. Grand Ole Opry,” Wagoner charted 81 singles from 1954-1983. His syndicated television series, The Porter Wagoner Show, aired from 1960 to 1981. He was elected to the Country Music Hall of Fame in 2002. Wagoner was instrumental in giving Dolly Parton her start in the music business.

1929–Country singer, Buck Owens, is born Alvis Edgar Owens, Jr. in Sherman, Texas. His hits include Act Naturally, Love’s Gonna Live Here Again, I’ve Got a Tiger by the Tail, Buckaroo, Cryin’ Time, Together Again, and Waitin’ in Your Welfare Line. In 1969, he starred in Hee Haw: the series, originally envisioned as country music's answer to Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In, far outlived that show, running for 24 seasons.

1930–Businessman, George Soros, is born Schwartz György in Budapest, Hungary. Soros is considered to be one of the most successful investors in the world. As of February 2017, Soros had a net worth of $25.2 billion. He is known as "The Man who broke the Bank of England," because of his short sale of $10 billion worth of Pound sterling, making him a profit of $1 billion during the Black Wednesday UK currency crisis in 1992. He is a well-known supporter of American progressive and liberal political causes and dispenses his donations through his foundation, The Open Society Foundations.

1931–Author, playwright, and screenwriter, William Goldman, is born in Chicago, Illinois. He won Academy Awards for his screenplays for Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid and All the President's Men.

1932–Radio and television announcer, Charlie O'Donnell, is born Charles John O'Donnell in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He is best known for his work on the game show Wheel of Fortune.

1933–Racecar driver, Parnelli Jones, is born Rufus Parnell Jones in Texarkana, Arkansas. He is best known for his accomplishments at the Indianapolis 500. In 1962, he became the first driver to qualify over 150 mph. He won the race in 1963.

1939–Actor, George (Stevens) Hamilton, is born in Memphis, Tennessee. He appeared in the films Home from the Hill, All the Fine Young Cannibals, Where the Boys Are, The Light in the Piazza, Two Weeks in Another Town, Your Cheatin' Heart, Evel Knievel, The Man Who Loved Cat Dancing, and Love at First Bite. He was married to Alana Stewart.

1941–Actor, L.M. Kit Carson, is born Lewis Minor Carson in Irving, Texas. He first came to prominance by starring in Jim McBride's mockumentary David Holzman's Diary in 1967; the two would team up again in 1983, sharing screenplay credits for the remake of Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless. He also wrote the screenplay for Paris, Texas. He was married to actress, Karen Black.

1941–Actress, Deborah Walley, is born in Bridgeport, Connecticut. She played the character of Gidget in the franchise’s follow-up films, among them, Gidget Goes to Hawaii. She also appeared in the films Bon Voyage, Summer Magic, The Young Lovers, Beach Blanket Bingo, Ski Party, Dr. Goldfoot and the Bikini Machine, The Ghost in the Invisible Bikini, Spinout, and Benji.

1944–Nazi German troops end the week-long Wola massacre, during which at least 40,000 people were killed indiscriminately or in mass executions.

1944–Alençon is liberated by General Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque. It is the first city in France to be liberated from the Nazis by French forces.

1944–Military Lieutenant and pilot, Joseph P. Kennedy, dies flying over Blythburgh, East Suffolk, England, at age 29. He was the eldest of nine children born to Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and Rose Fitzgerald. His younger brothers were John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, and Ted Kennedy.

1945–Ron Mael, of Sparks, is born Ronald David Mael in Culver City, California.

1947–United Nations Security Council Resolution 29 relating to UN membership of Yemen and Pakistan is adopted.

1948–The USS Nevada is struck from the naval record.

1949–Mark (Freuder) Knopfler, of Dire Straits, is born in Glasgow, Scotland. The group’s hits include Sultans of Swing and Walk of Life.

1950–In the Bloody Gulch massacre, American POWs are massacred by the North Korean Army.

1951–Kiddie Land opens near Amarillo, Texas, with only three rides: the Hershell kiddie boat ride, the Lil’ Dipper roller coaster, and a kiddie car ride built by Paul Roads (creator of the park). In 1969, Kiddie Land became Wonderland Amusement Park and it is a major attraction with more than 200,000 visitors each year. Rides now include the Texas Tornado, the Shoot the Chute, the Big Splash Log Flume, the Sky Rider Monorail, the Rattlesnake River Raft Ride, the Thunder Jet Racer, and the Pipeline Plunge Water Slide.

1952–Thirteen prominent Jewish intellectuals are murdered in Moscow, Russia.

1953–The Soviet atomic bomb project continues with the detonation of Joe 4, the first Soviet thermonuclear weapon.

1953–The islands of Zakynthos and Kefalonia in Greece, are severely damaged by a 7.3 earthquake.

1954–Jazz guitarist, Pat Metheny, in born Patrick Bruce Metheny in Lee's Summit, Missouri. His style incorporates elements of progressive and contemporary jazz, Latin jazz, and jazz fusion.

1955–Writer, Thomas Mann, dies of atherosclerosis in Zürich, Switzerland, at age 80. He leaves instructions that his diaries be sealed for 20 years. He was known for his finely wrought writing style enriched by humor, irony, and parody. His highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas are noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and the intellectual. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1929.

1958–Art Kane photographs 57 notable jazz musicians in front of a Brownstone in New York City, in the black and white group portrait, "A Great Day in Harlem."

1960–Echo 1A, NASA's first successful communications satellite, is launched.

1960–Pete Best auditions to become the drummer for The Silver Beatles. He is then asked to travel to Hamburg, Germany, with them as their new drummer. Before leaving for Hamburg, The Silver Beatles change their name to simply, The Beatles.

1961–Roy (Ernest) Hay, of Culture Club, is born in Southend, Essex, England.

1962–Television psychic, Miss Cleo, is born Youree Dell Harris in Los Angeles, California. She was a spokeswoman for the pay-per-call Psychic Readers Network from 1997 to 2003.

1963–Rapper, Sir Mix-a-Lot, is born Anthony Ray in Seattle, Washington.

1964–South Africa is banned from the Olympic Games due to the country's racist policies.

1964–Charlie Wilson, one of the Great Train Robbers, escapes from Winson Green Prison in Birmingham, England.

1964–Spy novelist, Ian Fleming, dies in of a heart attack in Canterbury, England, at age 56. His last recorded words were an apology to the ambulance drivers for having inconvenienced them, saying, "I am sorry to trouble you chaps. I don't know how you get along so fast with the traffic on the roads these days." He was the author of the James Bond series of books. Among those novels are Casino Royal, Live and Let Die, Diamonds Are Forever, Dr. No, Goldfinger, For Your Eyes Only, and Thunderball.

1969–Violence erupts after the Apprentice Boys of Derry march in Derry, Northern Ireland, resulting in a three-day communal riot known as the Battle of the Bogside.

1972–The last of the American combat ground troops leave Vietnam.

1975–Actor, Casey Affleck, is born Caleb Casey McGuire Affleck-Boldt in Falmouth, Massachusetts. He appeared in the films To Die For, Chasing Amy, Good Will Hunting, 200 Cigarettes, American Pie, Committed, Ocean’s Eleven, Gerry, Gone Baby Gone, Interstellar, and Manchester by the Sea. His brother is actor, Ben Affleck. He is married to actress, Summer Phoenix. His brother-in-law is actor, Joaquin Phoenix.

1976–Between 1,000 and 3,500 Palestinians are killed in the Tel al-Zaatar massacre, one of the bloodiest events of the Lebanese Civil War.

1977–The first free flight of the Space Shuttle Enterprise takes place.

1977–Riots begin in Sri Lanka, targeting the minority Sri Lankan Tamils, less than a month after the United National Party had come to power. Over 300 Tamils are killed.

1978–The Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and the People's Republic of China is signed.

1980–The Montevideo Treaty, establishing the Latin American Integration Association, is signed.

1981–IBM (International Business Machines) introduces the Model 5150 PC and PC-DOS. The IBM PC (personal computer) ran on the Intel 8088 microprocessor at 4.77 mHz with one or two 160K floppy disk drives. It had 16 kilobytes of memory, expandable to 256k, five 8-bit ISA slots, a 65-watt power supply; but there is no built-in clock, no built-in serial or parallel ports, and no built-in video capability. It was made available with an optional color monitor. MS-DOS 1.0 / 1.1 was issued with the PC. Prices started at $1,565. The IBM PC was a tremendous success and IBM quickly became the top microcomputer company, with Apple dropping to second place.

1982–Mexico announces that it is unable to pay its enormous external debt, marking the beginning of a debt crisis that spreads to all of Latin America and the Third World.

1982–Actor, Henry Fonda, dies at age 77. He appeared in the films The Grapes of Wrath, Twelve Angry Men, Once Upon a Time in the West, and On Golden Pond. He is the father of actress, Jane Fonda, and actor, Peter Fonda. He is the grandfather of actress, Bridget Fonda.

1985–The deadliest single-aircraft accident in history occurs, when Japan Airlines Domestic Flight 123 experiences mechanical problems just minutes after take-off. Approximately a half-hour later, the plane crashes into two ridges of Mount Takamagahara, 60 miles from Tokyo, killing 505 of the 509 passengers and crew members that were aboard.

1989–Physicist and inventor, William Shockley, dies of prostate cancer in Stanford, California, at age 79. Along with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, Shockley co-invented the transistor, for which all three were awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics. Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s led to California's "Silicon Valley" becoming a hotbed of electronics innovation.

1990–Sue, the largest and most complete Tyrannosaurus Rex skeleton found to date, is discovered by Sue Hendrickson in South Dakota.

1990–Cartoonist, B. Kliban, dies of a pulmonary embolism in San Francisco, California, at age 55. He is best known for the book, Cat, a collection of cartoons about cats drawn in Kliban's distinctive style.

1992–Canada, Mexico, and the United States announce completion of negotiations for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

1992–Jazz composer, John Cage, dies after suffering a stroke in New York, at age 79. He was a music theorist, writer, and artist. A pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, and non-standard use of musical instruments, Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde.

1994–Major League Baseball players go on strike. This will force the cancellation of the 1994 World Series.

1995–A memorial gathering is held for Jerry Garcia at Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, California.

1995–Orchestra leader and arranger, Marty Paich, dies of colon cancer in Santa Ynez, California, at age 70. During the 1950s, Paich was active in West coast jazz performance, while also doing studio work. He not only played on, but arranged and produced, numerous West Coast jazz recordings, including albums by Ray Brown, Ella Fitzgerald, Stan Kenton, Shelly Manne, Pete Jolly, Anita O'Day, Art Pepper, Buddy Rich, Shorty Rogers, and Mel Tormé.

1997–Blues guitarist, Luther Allison, dies of cancer in Madison, Wisconsin, at age 57.

2000–The Oscar class submarine K-141 Kursk of the Russian Navy explodes and sinks in the Barents Sea during a military exercise.

2000–Actress, Loretta Young, dies from ovarian cancer in Santa Monica, California, at age 87. She is best known for starring in her own anthology TV series The Loretta Young Show. She appeared in the films Road to Paradise, Kismet, The Life of Jimmy Dolan, Born to Be Bad, Clive of India, The Call of the Wild, A Night to Remember, The Stranger, The Farmer’s Daughter, The Bishop’s Wife, and Rachel and the Stranger.

2005–Sri Lanka's foreign minister, Lakshman Kadirgamar, is fatally shot at his home by an LTTE sniper.

2007–The bulk carrier, MV New Flame, collides with the oil tanker, Torm Gertrud, at the southernmost tip of Gibraltar, ending up partially submerged.

2007–Television producer and talk show host, Merv Griffin, dies of prostate cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 82. From 1965 to 1986, Griffin hosted his own talk show The Merv Griffin Show. He also created the internationally popular game shows Jeopardy! and Wheel of Fortune through his television production companies, Merv Griffin Enterprises and Merv Griffin Entertainment.

2009–Guitarist and inventor, Les Paul, dies of pneumonia in White Plains, New York, at age 94. He devised the first solid-body electric guitar, and engineered innovations such as overdubbing, the close-mike technique, and the record delay echo, all taken for granted in modern-day recording studios.

2010–Richie Hayward, drummer for Little Feat, dies of liver cancer in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, at age 64.

2014–Actress, Lauren Bacall, dies from a stroke in Manhattan, New York, at age 89. She appeared in the films To Have and Have Not, The Big Sleep, Key Largo, Young Man with a Horn, How to Marry a Millionaire, Written on the Wind, Sex and the Single Girl, The Fan, and The Mirror Has Two Faces. In 2009, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences awarded her an honorary Oscar "in recognition of her central place in the Golden Age of motion pictures."

2015–At least two massive explosions kill 145 people and injure nearly 800 others in Tianjin, China.

2016–Scientists announce that Greenland sharks are now the longest-living vertebrates known on Earth, after researchers at the University of Copenhagen, using radiocarbon dating, determined the ages of 28 of the animals: one of the females was estimated to be about 400 years old. The former vertebrate record-holder was a Bowhead whale, estimated to be 211 years old.

2016–The United States declares a public health emergency in Puerto Rico over an outbreak of the Zika virus that has infected nearly 11,000 people.

2016–A series of coordinated bombings across Thailand, mostly at sites popular with tourists, kills four people and wounds dozens of others.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Louis II of Italy; Pope Sixtus IV; Antoine-Augustin Parmentier; William Blake; Eliphalet Remington; Alfred Lunt; the Ford Model T; Michael Kidd; William Goldman; General Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque; a map of Kiddieland near Amarillo, Texas; Thomas Mann; Ian Fleming; the IBM Model 5150 PC (personal computer); William Shockley; Marty Paich; and Lauren Bacall.

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