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1962–Actress, Marilyn Monroe, dies from a drug overdose in Los Angeles, California, at age 36. As a case that is still unsolved, and in which conspiracy theories abound, the nature and circumstances of her death, officially recorded as a suicide, remain a compelling mystery. She appeared in the films The Asphalt Jungle, All About Eve, Don’t Bother to Knock, Monkey Business, Niagra, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, How to Marry a Millionaire, River of No Return, There’s No Business Like Show Business, The Seven Year Itch, Bus Stop, The Prince and the Showgirl, Some Like It Hot, Let’s Make Love, and The Misfits.

25–Guangwu claims the throne as Emperor, restoring the Han dynasty after the collapse of the short-lived Xin Dynasty.

642–Oswald of Northumbria is killed by the Mercians at the Battle of Maserfield, at age 38. His body was dismembered and his head and limbs were placed on stakes.

882–Louis III of France dies from hitting his head after falling from his horse in St. Denis, Ile-de-France, Neustria, at age 19.

910–The last major Danish army to raid England is defeated at the Battle of Tettenhall by the allied forces of Mercia and Wessex, led by King Edward the Elder and Etheired, Lord of the Mercians.

917–Euthymius I of Constantinople dies in exil in Agathou, at age 83.

939–The Battle of Alhandic is fought between Ramiro II of León and Abd-ar-Rahman III at Zamora during the Spanish Reconquista.

1068–In the Byzantine-Norman Wars, the Italo-Normans begin a nearly three-year siege of Bari.

1100–Henry I is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey in London, England.

1278–The Siege of Algeciras ends during the Spanish Reconquista, pitting the forces of the Kingdom of Castile against the Emirate of Granada.

1305–William Wallace, who led the Scottish resistance against England, is captured by the English near Glasgow and transported to London where he is put on trial and executed.

1364–Emperor Kogon of Japan dies while under house arrest in Kyoto, Japan, at age 51.

1388–The Battle of Otterburn, a border skirmish between the Scottish and the English in Northern England, is fought near Otterburn.

1458–Pope Callixtus III dies in Rome, Papal States, at age 79. He was the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Callixtus" upon his election. He was also responsible for the retrial of Joan of Arc, which saw her vindicated. Callixtus III was the uncle of Pope Alexander VI.

1461–Polish King, Alexander Jagiellon, is born Aleksander Jagiellonczyk in Kraków, Poland.

1583–Sir Humphrey Gilbert establishes the first English colony in North America, at what is now St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador.

1600–The Gowrie Conspiracy against King James VI of Scotland (later to become King James I of England) takes place.

1610–Politician, Alonso García de Ramón, dies. He was the Royal Governor of Chile.

1620–The Mayflower departs from Southampton, England, on its first attempt to reach North America.

1689–The village of Lachine in New France, is attacked by 1,500 Iroquois.

1729–Engineer, Thomas Newcomen, dies in London, England, at age 65. He invented the Newcomen atmospheric engine.

1735–New York Weekly Journal writer, John Peter Zenger, is acquitted of seditious libel against the royal governor of New York, on the basis that what he had published was true.

1736–The Virginia Gazette, the first newspaper south of the Potomac River, is published in Williamsburg, Virginia.

1763–In the Battle of Bushy Run, British forces, led by Henry Bouquet, defeat Chief Pontiac's Indians.

1772–The First Partition of Poland begins.

1781–During the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, the Battle of Dogger Bank takes place.

1792–Politician, Frederick North, dies in Mayfair, Middlesex, England, at age 60. He was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

1796–The Battle of Castiglione takes place in Napoleon's first Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars.

1815–Politician, Edward John Eyre, is born in Whipsnade, England. He was Governor of Jamaica.

1816–The British Admiralty dismisses Francis Ronalds's new invention of the first working electric telegraph as "wholly unnecessary," preferring to continue using the semaphore.

1824–During the Greek War of Independence, Constantine Kanaris leads a Greek fleet to victory against Ottoman and Egyptian ships in the Battle of Samos.

1827–Politician, Deodoro da Fonseca, is born. He was the first President of Brazil.

1828–Louise of the Netherlands is born Wilhelmina Frederika Alexandrine Anna Louise in The Hague, United Kingdom of the Netherlands. She was the Queen of Sweden and Norway as spouse of King Charles XV of Sweden and IV of Norway.

1833–Carola of Vasa is born Karoline Friederike Franziska Stephanie Amalie Cecilie in Schönbrunn, Vienna. She was the last Queen of Saxony.

1850–Author, Guy de Maupassant, is born in Dieppe, France. He was taken under the wing of novelist, Gustave Flaubert, and went on to become France's greatest writer of short stories. In the 1880s, Moupassant wrote 300 short stories, six novels, travel books, verse, and journalistic pieces.

1858–The first transatlantic cable is completed, enabling telegraphic communication between the United States and Great Britain. The service ended on September 1st, as the current was too weak.

1858–Chef, Alexis Benoit Soyer, dies in England. Soyer had become the most celebrated chef in Victorian England. He opened kitchens in Ireland during the famine to sell food at half price and was an advisor on food to the British Army during the Crimean War.

1860–Charles XV of Sweden is crowned King of Norway in Trondheim.

1861–In order to help pay for the Civil War effort, the U.S. government levies the first income tax as part of the Revenue Act of 1861 (3% of all incomes over US $800). It was rescinded in 1872.

1861–The U.S. Army abolishes flogging.

1862–Along the Mississippi River near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Confederate troops attempt to take the city, but are driven back by fire from Union gunboats.

1862–Joseph (Carey) Merrick is born in Leicester, England. He had severe deformities and was exhibited as a human curiosity named the Elephant Man. He became well known in London society after he went to live at the London Hospital. Merrick began to develop abnormally during the first few years of his life: his skin appeared thick and lumpy, he developed enlarged lips, and a bony lump grew on his forehead. One of his arms and both of his feet became enlarged, and at some point during his childhood he fell and damaged his hip, resulting in permanent lameness. Although his condition was incurable, Merrick was allowed to stay at London Hospital for the remainder of his life. In 1979, Bernard Pomerance's play about Merrick, The Elephant Man, debuted and David Lynch's film (also called The Elephant Man), was released the following year.

1874–Japan launches its postal savings system, modeled after a similar system in the United Kingdom.

1879–Seabreeze Amusement Park opens as the last stop on the steam railroad at Irondequoit, a suburb of Rochester, New York. Picnic groves and the lakefront are the main attractions. By the 1920s, thousands visit the park to enjoy the Virginia Reel, the world's largest salt water swimming pool, thrill acts on the Midway, four roller coasters (including the classic Jack Rabbit). The new millennium brings the Whirlwind spinning coaster, Music Express, Revolution 360°, Helix, Twirlin' Tea Cups and the Hydro Racer waterslide complex. Seabreeze is the fourth oldest amusement park in America.

1882–Standard Oil of New Jersey is established.

1884–The cornerstone for the Statue of Liberty is laid on Bedloe's Island (present-day Liberty Island) in New York Harbor.

1888–Bertha Benz drives from Mannheim to Pforzheim (Germany) and back in the first long distance automobile trip, commemorated as the Bertha Benz Memorial Route since 2008.

1901–Victoria, Princess Royal of the United Kingdom, dies.

1906–Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, King of Iran, agrees to convert the government to a constitutional monarchy.

1906–Film director and actor, John (Marcellus) Huston, is born in Nevada, Missouri. His films include His films include The Maltese Falcon, The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, Key Largo, The Asphalt Jungle, The Red Badge of Courage, The African Queen, Beat the Devil, Heaven Knows, Mrs. Allison, The Misfits, The List of Andrian Messenger, The Night of the Iguana, The Bible, Reflections in a Golden Eye, Casino Royale, Fat City, The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean, The Man Who Would Be King, Annie, Under the Volcano, and Prizzi’s Honor. His father was actor, Walter Huston, and his daughter is actress, Angelica Huston.

1911–Actor, Robert Taylor, is born Spangler Arlington Brugh Taylor in Filley, Nebraska. He appeared in the films Magnificent Obsession, The Gorgeous Hussy, Canille, A Yank at Oxford, Waterloo Bridge, Billy the Kid, Johnny Eager, The Fighting Lady, Quo Vadis, Westward the Woman, Ivanhoe, I Love Melvin, Knights of the Round Table, Many Rivers to Cross, Saddle the Wind, Party Girl, Cattle King, and Where Angels Go, Trouble Follows. He was married to actress, Barbara Stanwyck.

1914–In Cleveland, Ohio, the first electric traffic light is installed.

1916–In World War I, Allied forces, under the command of Archibald Murray, defeat an attacking Ottoman army, under the command of Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein, securing the Suez Canal and beginning the Ottoman retreat from the Sinai Peninsula.

1918–Ballerina, Betty Oliphant, is born Nancy Elizabeth Oliphant in London, England. She co-founded Canada's National Ballet School.

1925–Plaid Cymru is formed with the aim of disseminating knowledge of the Welsh language that is at the time in danger of dying out. Plaid Cymru, the Party of Wales (often referred to simply as Plaid) is a social-democratic political party advocating for an independent Wales from the United Kingdom within the European Union.

1926–Magician and escape artist, Harry Houdini performs his greatest feat, spending 91 minutes underwater in a sealed tank before escaping.

1930–Astronaut, Neil (Alden) Armstrong, is born near Wapakoneta, Ohio. He was an aerospace engineer, naval aviator, test pilot, and university professor. Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong was an officer in the U.S. Navy and served in the Korean War. He was the first man to walk on the Moon on July 20, 1969.

1930–Politician, Michal Kovac, is born in Lubisa, Czechoslovakia. He was the first President of Slovakia.

1935–Actor, John Saxon, is born Carmine Orrico in Brooklyn, New York. He appeared in the films Rock Pretty Baby, This Happy Feeling, The Reluctant Debutante, The Restless Years, The Unforgiven, Portrait in Black, Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacation, Blood Beast from Outer Space, Death of a Gunfighter, Joe Kidd, Enter the Dragon, The Electric Horseman, Battle Beyond the Stars, A Nightmare on Elm Street, Magnum Force, and From Dusk Till Dawn.

1939–Princess Irene of the Netherlands is born Irene Emma Elisabeth at Soestdijk Palace in Baarn, Netherlands. Irene was first in the public eye when her family fled the Nazi invasion of the Netherlands during World War II, traveling first to Britain, then later to Canada.

1940–The Soviet Union formally annexes Latvia.

1940–Football player and coach, Roman Gabriel, is born Roman Ildonzo Gabriel Jr. in Wilmington, North Carolina. He played professionally in the National Football League (NFL) as a quarterback and is considered to have been one of the best players at that position during the late 1960s and early 1970s.

1940–Rick Huxley, bass guitarist for The Dave Clark Five, is born in Dartford, Kent, England.

1941–In World War II, the Battle of Smolensk concludes with Germany capturing about 300,000 Soviet Red Army prisoners.

1943–Anti-Nazi resistance fighter, Eva-Maria Buch, is guillotined at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin, Germany.

1944–Possibly the biggest prison breakout in history occurs as 545 Japanese POWs attempt to escape outside the town of Cowra, New South Wales, Australia, during World War II.

1944–Polish insurgents liberate a German labor camp in Warsaw, Poland, freeing 348 Jewish prisoners.

1944–The Nazis begin a week-long massacre of anywhere between 40,000 and 100,000 civilians and prisoners of war in Wola, Poland.

1945–Loni Anderson, is born. She is best known for her role on the TV sitcom WKRP in Cincinatti. She was married to actor, Burt Reynolds.

1947–Rick Derringer, of The McCoys, is born Ricky Dean Zehringer in Fort Recovery, Ohio. With the group, he had a No. 1 hit with Hang On Sloopy.

1947–Greg Leskiw, of The Guess Who, is born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

1949–An earthquake destroys 50 towns in Ecuador, killing more than 6,000 people.

1949–The Mann Gulch fire kills 13 firefighters in Montana.

1951–Singer, Samantha Sang, is born Cheryl Lau Sang in Melbourne, Australia. Her biggest hit was Emotion, written for her by Barry and Robin Gibb of The Bee Gees.

1955–Eddie Ojeda, of Twisted Sister, is born in New York, New York.

1955–Actress, Carmen Miranda, dies of a heart attack in Beverly Hills, California, at age 46. In 1940, she made her first Hollywood film, Down Argentine Way, and her fruit-filled hat, exotic clothing, and Latin accent became her trademark.

1956–Actress, Maureen (Denise) McCormick, is born in Encino, California. She is best known for the role of Marcia Brady on the TV sitcom The Brady Bunch. She also appeared in many other TV shows, including Bewitched, Honey West, I Dream of Jeannie, My Three Sons, Happy Days, The Streets of San Francisco, The Love Boat, Vega$, and Fantasy Island. She appeared in the films Pony Express Rider, Moonshine County Express, Take Down, Skatetown, U.S.A., The Idolmaker, Return to Horror High, and Dogtown.

1957–The first edition of Dick Clark’s American Bandstand airs on national TV (on ABC).

1959–Pat Smear, of both Nirvana and the Foo Fighters, is born Georg Albert Ruthenberg in Los Angeles, California.

1960–Burkina Faso, then known as Upper Volta, becomes independent from France.

1961–Six Flags Over Texas opens near Dallas, Texas. The park has six theme areas: Spain, France, Mexico, Texas, Confederacy, and Modern. Rides at the opening include: Los Conquistadors Coronado Burros, La Salle’s Riverboat Adventure, Fiesta Train, Goat Carts, Six Flags Railroad, Little Dixie Carousel, and Sidewinder. Texas oil baron, Angus Wynne, was inspired by the opening of Disneyland, and he is the man behind the building of a theme park in his home state, which would become an Amusement Park empire. The “Six Flags” name represents the six countries whose flags have flown over Texas.

1961–Actress, Tawny Kitaen, is born Julie E. Kitaen in San Diego, California. She appeared in the films Bachelor Party, Witchboard, Instant Justice, and Three of Hearts. She was married to rock singer, David Cloverdale, and baseball player, Chuck Finley.

1961–Actress, Janet McTeer, is born in Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland, England. She is best known for her role as Mrs. Dashwood in the film Sense and Sensibility. She has extensive film and television credits, both in the U.K. and the U.S. She has been received a Tony Award, an Olivier Award, an Emmy Award for her work.

1962–Nelson Mandela is jailed. He would not be released until 1990.

1962–Actress, Marilyn Monroe, dies from a drug overdose in Los Angeles, California, at age 36. As a case that is still unsolved, and in which conspiracy theories abound, the nature and circumstances of her death, officially recorded as a suicide, remain a compelling mystery. She appeared in the films The Asphalt Jungle, All About Eve, Don’t Bother to Knock, Monkey Business, Niagra, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, How to Marry a Millionaire, River of No Return, There’s No Business Like Show Business, The Seven Year Itch, Bus Stop, The Prince and the Showgirl, Some Like It Hot, Let’s Make Love, and The Misfits.

1963–The Limited Test Ban Treaty is signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. The treaty banned nuclear tests in space, underwater, and in the atmosphere.

1964–The U.S. begins bombing North Vietnam.

1964–American aircraft from carriers USS Ticonderoga and USS Constellation bomb North Vietnam in retaliation for strikes against U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin.

1964–Adam (Nathaniel) Yauch, of The Beastie Boys, is born in Brooklyn, New York. He co-founded the Beastie Boys in 1979, and the hip hop group went on to sell more than 40 million records.

1965–The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 begins as Pakistani soldiers cross the Line of Control dressed as locals.

1965–Sonny & Cher play their first British concert at the 100 Club in London, England.

1965–Jeff Coffin, saxophone player for The Dave Matthews Band and Béla Fleck and the Flecktones, is born.

1966–The Beatles’ album, Revolver, is released on the Parlophone label in the U.K.

1966–Actor, Jonathan (Elihu) Silverman, is born in Los Angeles, California. He appeared in the films Girls Just Want to Have Fun, Brighton Beach Memoirs, Caddyshack II, Stealing Home, Weekend at Bernie’s, Class Action, Broadway Bound, Death Becomes Her, and Little Big League.

1968–Rapper, Funkmaster Flex, is born Aston George Taylor, Jr. in The Bronx, New York. He was a musician and producer on New York City's Hot 97 radio station.

1968–Luther Perkins, guitarist for The Tennessee Three, dies from smoke inhalation in a fire at his home in Hendersonville, Tennessee, at age 40. The Tennessee Three was the backup band for singer, Johnny Cash. Perkins was an iconic figure in what would become known as rockabilly music. His creatively simple, sparsely embellished, rhythmic use of Fender Esquire, Jazzmaster and Jaguar guitars is credited for creating Cash's signature "boom-chicka-boom" style.

1969–Mariner 7 makes its closest fly-by of the planet Mars.

1971–The first Pacific Islands Forum (then known as the "South Pacific Forum") is held in Wellington, New Zealand, with the aim of enhancing cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean.

1974–The U.S. Congress places a $1 billion limit on military aid to South Vietnam.

1979–Maoists undertake an attempted military uprising in Afghanistan.

1981–President Ronald Reagan fires 11,359 striking air-traffic controllers who ignored his order for them to return to work.

1983–Singer, David Crosby, is sentenced to eight years in prison. He had been charged with drug and firearm possession. He was paroled in 1986.

1983–Actress, Judy Canova, dies of cancer in Hollywood, California, at age 69. She appeared in the films Artists & Models, Thrill of a Lifetime, Scatterbrain, Sis Hopkins, Puddin’ Head, Sleepytime Gal, and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

1984–Actor, Richard Burton, dies of a brain hemorrhage at his home in Céligny, Switzerland, at age 58. Burton was a well-respected Shakespearian stage actor. He appeared in the films Waterfront, The Desert Rats, The Robe, Look Back in Anger, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Ice Palace, The Bramble Bush, The Longest Day, Cleopatra, Becket, The Night of the Iguana, Hamlet, The Sandpiper, The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Wolf?, The Taming of the Shrew, Boom! Staircase, Brief Encounter, and Equus.

1985–The establishment of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is announced.

1989–General elections are held in Nicaragua with the Sandinista National Liberation Front winning a majority.

1991–Engineer, Soichiro Honda, dies in Tokyo, Japan, at age 84. He founded the Honda Motor Company.

1992–Drummer, Jeff Porcaro, dies of cardiac arrest in Los Angeles, California, at age 38. The co-founder of Toto was spraying insecticide in his yard and developed an allergic reaction that triggered the heart attack.

1995–In the Yugoslav Wars, the city of Knin, Croatia, a significant Serb stronghold, is captured by Croatian forces during Operation Storm.

1997–Radio host, Don Steele, dies of lung cancer at age 61. He was one of the most popular disc jockeys in America, from the middle of the 1960s until his retirement in 1997. He was known as "The Real Don Steele," a name given to him by his program director, Steve Brown, in Omaha, Nebraska.

2000–Actor, Sir Alec Guinness, dies of liver cancer in Midhurst, West Sussex, England, at age 86. He is known for his portrayal of Obi-Wan Kenobi in George Lucas's original Star Wars trilogy. He appeared in the films Great Expectations, Oliver Twist, Kind Hearts and Coronets, Last Holiday, The Lavender Hill Mob, The Man in the White Suit, The Prisoner, The Ladykillers, The Bridge on the River Kwai, Our Man in Havana, Lawrence of Arabia, Doctor Zhivago, Hotel Paradiso, The Quiller Miemorandum, Scrooge, Lovesick, A Passage to India, and Little Dorrit.

2001–Politician, Otema Allimadi, dies. He was the second Prime Minister of Uganda.

2002–Sportscaster, Chick Hearn, dies from an injury to his head during a fall at his home in Northridge, California, at age 85. He was best known as the long-time play-by-play announcer for the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association. He is remembered for his rapid fire, staccato broadcasting style, associated with colorful phrases such as “slam dunk,” “air ball,” and “no harm, no foul,” that have become common basketball vernacular.

2003–A car bomb explodes outside the Marriott Hotel in Jakarta, Indonesia, killing 12 people and injuring 150 others.

2009–Screenwriter, Budd Schulberg, dies in Quiogue, New York, at age 95. His works include On the Waterfront, The Harder They Fall, and A Face in the Crowd.

2010–The Copiapó mining accident occurs, trapping 33 Chilean miners approximately 2,300 feet below the ground.

2012–The Oak Creek shooting takes place at a Sikh temple in Oak Creek, Wisconsin, killing six people. The perpetrator is shot dead by police.

2013–Musician, George Duke, dies from chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Los Angeles, California, at age 67. He was a keyboard pioneer who worked with violinist, Jean-Luc Ponty, the Don Ellis Orchestra, Cannonball Adderley's band, and Frank Zappa.

2015–The Environmental Protection Agency releases three million gallons of heavy metal toxin tailings and waste water into the Animas River at Gold King Mine in Colorado. No action is taken against the agency.

2015–Actress, Jennifer Aniston, marries actor, Justin Theroux, in a secret ceremony at their home in Bel Air, California.

2015–Actor, George Cole, dies after a short illness at Royal Berkshire Hospital in Reading, Berkshire, England, at age 90. He appeared in the films Henry V, Quartet, The Spider and the Fly, Lady Godiva Rides Again, Scrooge, Our Girl Friday, The Constant Husband, Cleopatra, Fright, The Blue Bird, The End of Innocence, and Mary Reilly.

2016–British activists with the American Black Lives Matter movement block the road to Heathrow Airport and streets in Manchester, Birmingham, and Nottingham, marking the fifth anniversary of the deadly police shooting of Mark Duggan in north London, England. Ten protestors are arrested.

2016–The XXXI Summer Olympics begin in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

2016–It is reported that the food startup, Hampton Creek, has spent $77,000 to buy back its eggless, vegan product, Just Mayo, to make it appear more popular. They bought the product from retailers including Safeway, Whole Foods, Kroger, Walmart, Costco and Target. The company began the buyouts in 2014 and continued them through 2015.

2016–Gunmen open fire in a market in Assam, India, killing 13 people and injuring 18 others..

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Emperor Guangwu; Polish King, Alexander Jagiellon; The Virginia Gazette; Alexis Benoit Soyer; the skeleton of the Elephant Man (Joseph Merrick); early construction for the base of the Statue of Liberty; Robert Taylor; Neil Armstrong; Loni Anderson; Carmen Miranda; Six Flags Over Texas; Marilyn Monroe; Revolver by The Beatles; David Crosby's mugshot; Jeff Porcaro; and Budd Schulberg.

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