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1939–The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Technicolor movie The Wizard of Oz is released. Directed by Victor Fleming, it was adapted from L. Frank Baum's novel. Judy Garland, who played Dorothy, had turned 17 shortly before the picture came out. Ray Bolger was originally cast as the Tin Man, but swapped roles with Buddy Ebsen, who was to have been the Scarecrow; Ebsen then got sick from the metal paint and was replaced by Jack Haley.

79–Roman commander and philosopher, Pliny the Elder, dies.

357–Julian, Caesar (deputy emperor) and supreme commander of the Roman army in Gaul, wins an important victory against the Alemanni at Strasbourg (Argentoratum).

383–Roman Emperor, Gratian, dies.

766–Emperor Constantine V humiliates 19 high-ranking officials, after discovering a plot against him: he executes the leaders, Constantine Podopagouros and his brother, Strategios.

1192–Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy, dies.

1258–Regent George Mouzalon and his brothers are killed during a coup headed by the aristocratic faction, paving the way for its leader, Michael VIII Palaiologos, to ultimately usurp the throne of the Empire of Nicaea.

1270–King Louis IX of France dies of dysentery in Tunis, North Africa, at age 56. He was succeeded by his son, Philip III.

1482–Margaret of Anjou dies.

1530–Russian ruler, Ivan the Terrible, is born.

1537–The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, is formed.

1543–The first Europeans and firearms arrive in Japan.

1609–Galileo Galilei demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.

1630–Portuguese forces are defeated by the Kingdom of Kandy at the Battle of Randeniwela in Sri Lanka.

1699–Christian V of Denmark dies from the after-effects of a hunting accident in Copenhagen, Denmark, at age 53.

1707–Louis I of Spain is born.

1718–The city of New Orleans, Louisiana, is founded and named in honor of the Duke of Orleans of France.

1758–In the Seven Years' War, Frederick II of Prussia defeats the Russian army at the Battle of Zorndorf.

1776–Philosopher and historian, David Hume, dies in Edinburgh, Scotland, at age 65. His works include Treatise of Human Nature and History of England.

1786–Ludwig I of Bavaria is born in Strasbourg, France. He was the godson and namesake of Louis XVI of France.

1796–Carpenter and piano builder, James Lick, is born.

1814–The British capture Washington, D.C., and burn down the White House.

1819–Private detective, Allan Pinkerton, is born in Glasgow, Scotland. He is best known for creating the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, which is still in existence today as Pinkerton Consulting and Investigations, a subsidiary of Securitas AB. Pinkerton's business insignia was a wide open eye with the caption "We never sleep." He developed several investigative techniques still used today: among them are "shadowing" (surveillance of a suspect) and "assuming a role" (undercover work). At the time of his death, he was working on a system to centralize all criminal identification records, a database now maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

1822–Astronomer and composer, William Herschel, dies.

1825–Uruguay declares its independence from Brazil.

1830–The Belgian Revolution begins.

1835–The New York Sun perpetrates the Great Moon Hoax. This refers to a series of six articles that were published about the supposed discovery of life and even civilization on the Moon. The discoveries were falsely attributed to Sir John Herschel, one of the best-known astronomers of his time. It was not discovered to be a hoax for several weeks after its publication, and even then, the newspaper did not issue a retraction.

1836–Author and poet, (Francis) Bret Harte, is born in Albany, New York. He is best remembered for his short fiction featuring miners, gamblers, and other romantic figures of the California Gold Rush era.

1845–Ludwig II of Bavaria is born at Nymphenburg Palace, Munich, Bavaria. He is sometimes called the Swan King and the Fairy Tale King. He also held the titles of Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, Duke of Franconia, and Duke in Swabia. Ludwig is generally well-regarded and even revered by many Bavarians today. His legacy of architecture and art includes many of Bavaria's important tourist attractions.

1850–Physiologist and occultist, Charles Richet, is born in France.

1875–Captain Matthew Webb becomes the first person to swim across the English Channel, traveling from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in 22 hours.

1882–Politician, Seán T. O'Kelly, is boen. He was the second President of Ireland.

1883–France and Viet Nam sign the Treaty of Hue, recognizing a French protectorate over Annam and Tonkin.

1894–Kitasato Shibasaburo discovers the infectious agent of the bubonic plague and publishes his findings in The Lancet.

1898–Seven hundred Greek civilians, 17 British guards, and the British Consul of Crete, are killed by a Turkish mob in Heraklion, Greece.

1900–Philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, dies of pneumonia in Weimar, Saxony, German Empire, at age 55. He had been suffering from manic-depressive illness with periodic psychosis for several years.

1909–Actor, Michael Rennie, is born Eric Alexander Rennie in Idle near Bradford, West Riding of Yorkshire, England. He is best known for the role of the spaceman Klaatu in the classic sci-fi film The Day the Earth Stood Still. In a career spanning more than 30 years, Rennie appeared in over 50 films and in several American TV series. He appeared in the films The Wicked Lady, Caesar and Cleopatra, The Root of All Evil, Miss Pilgrim’s Progress, Phone Call from a Stranger, Five Fingers, Mambo, Teenage Rebel, The Lost World, Mary, Mary, and Hotel.

1910–Actress and dancer, Ruby Keeler, is born.

1912–The Kuomintang, the Chinese nationalist party, is founded.

1913–Actor, Don DeFore, is born.

1914–The library of the Catholic University of Leuven is deliberately destroyed by the German Army during World War I. Hundreds of thousands of irreplaceable volumes and Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts are lost.

1916–The United States National Park Service is established.

1916–Actor, Van Johnson, is born Charles Van Dell Johnson in Newport, Rhode Island. He appeared in the films Too Many Girls, Madame Curie, A Guy Named Joe, The White Cliffs of Dover, Till the Clouds Roll By, In the Good Old Summertime, Three Guys Named Mike, The Caine Mutiny, Brigadoon, The Last Time I Saw Paris, The End of the Affair, Yours, Mine and Ours, and The Purple Rose of Cairo.

1917–Actor, Mel Ferrer, is born.

1918–Conductor and composer, Leonard Bernstein, is born in Lawrence, Massachusetts.

1918–Actor, Richard Greene, is born in England.

1919–Politician, George Wallace, is born. He was the 45th Governor of Alabama.

1921–TV game show host, Monty Hall, is born in Canada. He is best known for hosting rhe long-running game show Let’s Make a Deal.

1924–While living in the South of France, F. Scott Fitzgerald finishes the first draft of The Great Gatsby.

1930–Actor, Sean Connery, is born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He is best known for the role of James Bond in the famous film series during the 1960s.

1931–Politician, Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani, is born in Kan District, Tehran, Iran. He was Prime Minister of Iran.

1931–Television personality, Regis Philbin, is born.

1933–The Diexi earthquake strikes Mao County, Sichuan, China, and killing 9,000 people.

1933–Jazz musician, Wayne Shorter, is born.

1933–Actor, Tom Skerritt, is born.

1939–The United Kingdom and Poland form a military alliance in which the U.K. promises to defend Poland in case of invasion by a foreign power.

1939–The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Technicolor movie The Wizard of Oz is released. Directed by Victor Fleming, it was adapted from L. Frank Baum's novel. Judy Garland, who played Dorothy, had turned 17 shortly before the picture came out. Ray Bolger was originally cast as the Tin Man, but swapped roles with Buddy Ebsen, who was to have been the Scarecrow; Ebsen then got sick from the metal paint and was replaced by Jack Haley.

1939–Film director, John Badham, is born.

1944–Paris, France, is liberated by the Allies during World War II.

1945–Ten days after World War II, ends with Japan announcing its surrender, armed supporters of the Chinese Communist Party kill U.S. intelligence officer, John Birch, regarded by some of the American right as the first victim of the Cold War.

1948–The House Un-American Activities Committee holds it first ever televised congressional hearing: "Confrontation Day" between Whittaker Chambers and Alger Hiss.

1949–Actor, John Savage, is born.

1949–Rocker, Gene Simmons, of KISS, is born Chaim Witz in Haifa, Israel.

1950–President Harry Truman orders the U.S. Army to seize control of the nation's railroads to avert a strike.

1951–Rob Halford, of Judas Priest, is born in England.

1954–New wave rocker, Elvis Costello, is born Declan Patrick McManus in London, England.

1956–Entomologist and sexologist, Alfred Kinsey, dies of pneumonia in Bloomington, Indiana, at age 62. In 1947, he founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University, now known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. He is best known for writing Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female.

1958–Film director, Tim Burton, is born.

1961–President Janio Quadros of Brazil resigns after just seven months in power, initiating a political crisis that culminates in a military coup in 1964.

1961–The Beatles appear on the Mersey River ferry boat the “Royal Iris,” for one of Cavern Club owner Ray McFall’s “Riverboat Shuffles.” The headlining group is clarinetist, Mr. Acker Bilk, a leading proponent of the Trad Jazz scene, which is still rivaling Beat music in England.

1961–Country singer, Billy Ray Cyrus, is born. His daughter is singer, Miley Cyrus.

1961–Actress, Ally Walker, is born Allene Damian Walker in Tullahoma, Tennessee. She is best known for the roles of Doctor Samantha Waters in the TV series The Profiler, and Agent June Stahl in the series Sons of Anarchy. She appeared in the films While You Were Sleeping, Steal Big, Steal Little, and Singles.

1962–Vivian Campbell, of Def Leppard, Whitesnake, and Thin Lizzy, is born in Ireland.

1964–While in Hollywood, California, on their American tour, The Beatles pay a visit to the Whisky A Go Go, where they meet up with Jane Mansfield. The press give the boys trouble and George Harrison ends up throwing his drink at a photographer.

1964–Actor, Blair Underwood, is born.

1964–Actress, Joanne Whalley, is born.

1965–Baseball player and physician, Moonlight Graham, dies.

1966–The Beatles, on tour in America for the last time, perform two shows at the Coliseum in Seattle, Washington. The first show (3:00 p.m.) at the Coliseum is attended by only 8,000 fans (the arena seats 15,000), but the evening show (8:00 p.m.) is a sell-out.

1967–George Lincoln Rockwell, founder of the American Nazi Party, is assassinated by a former member of his own group while leaving a laundromat in Arlington, Virginia, at age 49.

1967–Actor, Tom Hollander, is born Thomas Anthony Hollander in Bristol, England. He is best known for his roles in Pride and Prejudice, Gosford Park, and The Pirates of the Caribbean.

1967–Politician, Stanley Bruce, dies. He was the 8th Prime Minister of Australia.

1967–Actor, Paul Muni, dies.

1967–Politician, George Lincoln Rockwell, dies from a gunshot wound in Arlington, Virginia, at age 49. John Patler, a former member of Rockwell's group, was arrested and convicted of the murder and sentenced to 20 years in prison. Patler was paroled in 1975m after serving eight years. Rockwell was the founder of the American Nazi Party.

1968–Lakeside Farms opens in Hutchinson, Kansas. The rides and attractions are: Miniature Train, Motor Boats, Carousel, Antique Auto Ride, Ferris Wheel, Petting Zoo, Barn with Silo, Farm House, and a Concession Stand. There is no record of the closing of the park, although it no longer exists.

1968–Celebrity chef, Rachael Ray, is born.

1970–Elton John makes his American concert debut at the Troubadour in Santa Monica, California. His opening night numbers include: Your Song, Country Comfort, Take Me to the Pilot, Honky Tonk Women, and Bad Side of The Moon. The singer would actually get his big break in the U.S. before becoming a star in his British homeland.

1970–Emerson, Lake and Palmer make their world debut at Plymouth Guild Hall in Plymouth, England.

1970–Model and fashion designer, Claudia Schiffer, is born in Germany.

1973–The Faces play what they claim is their last U.K. date. Faces bassist, Tetsu Yamaychi, has been denied a work permit by the Musicians Union. However, the group stays together and lead singer, Rod Stewart, claims he's devoting all his time to the group and his next solo LP will be his last.

1973–The Allman Brothers' Ramblin' Man is released.

1977–Boxer, Diego Corrales, is born in Sacramento, California. He was the WBC, WBO, and The Ring Lightweight Champion, and the WBO and IBF Super Featherweight Champion.

1979–Composer and bandleader, Stan Kenton, dies from a stroke in Los Angeles, California, at age 67. He was a pianist, composer, and arranger who led an innovative, influential, and often controversial American jazz orchestra in the 1950s and 1960s.

1980–Zimbabwe joins the United Nations.

1981–The Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Saturn.

1980–Choreographer, Gower Champion, dies of blood cancer in New York, New York, at age 61. Working with his wife as the dance team, Marge & Gower Champion, his films include Rhapsody in Blue, Till the Clouds Roll By, Words and Music, Show Boat, Lovely to Look At, Everything I Have Is Yours, Give a Girl a Break, Jupiter’s Darling, Three for the Show, and Star!

1984–Writer, Truman Capote, dies of liver cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 59. He dies at the home of his old friend, Joanne Carson, ex-wife of late-night TV host Johnny Carson, on whose program Capote had been a frequent guest. Capote is best known for his novella, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, and his book In Cold Blood.

1988–Businessman, Art Rooney, dies. He founded the Pittsburgh Steelers.

1989–The Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Neptune, the second to last planet in the Solar System.

1991–Belarus gains its independence from the Soviet Union

1991–Linus Torvalds announces the first version of what will become Linux.

1991–The 43rd Annual Primetime Emmy Awards announces its winners. Best Dramatic Series: L.A. Law; Best Comedy Series: Cheers; Best Musical or Variety Series: The 63rd Annual Academy Awards; Best Special or Mini-Series: Separate But Equal; Best Actor: James Earl Jones; Best Actress: Patricia Wettig; Best Comedy Actor: Burt Reynolds; Best Comedy Actress: Kirstie Alley. The ceremonies are held at the Pasadena Civic Auditorium, Pasadena, California. The host is Dennis Miller. Cable network TNT received its first major nomination at this ceremony.

1991–Screenwriter, Niven Busch, dies of congestive heart failure in New York, New York, at age 88. His films include Belle Starr, The Postman Always Rings Twice, Duel in the Sun, and The Furies.

1997–Egon Krenz, the former East German leader, is convicted of a shoot-to-kill policy at the Berlin Wall.

2000–Musician, songwriter, and producer, Jack Nitzsche, dies of cardiac arrest in Hollywood, California, at age 63. In the 1960s, he worked closely with West Coast session musicians such as Leon Russell, Roy Caton, Glen Campbell, Carol Kaye, and Hal Blaine in a group known as The Wrecking Crew. They created backing music for numerous pop recordings by various artists such as The Beach Boys and The Monkees. In the 1970s, he began to concentrate more on film music and became one of the more prolific film orchestrators in Hollywood.

2006–Politician, Noor Hassanali, dies. He was the second President of Trinidad and Tobago.

2007–Politician, Raymond Barre, dies of heart failure in Paris, France, at age 83. He was Prime Minister of France.

2009–Politician, Ted Kennedy, dies.

2012–The Voyager 1 spacecraft enters interstellar space, becoming the first man-made object to do so.

2012–Astronaut, Neil Armstrong, dies following complications from heart surgery at age 82. He was the first man to walk on the Moon on July 20, 1969.

2013–A train derails in Huimanguillo, Tabasco, Mexico, killing six people and injuring 22 others.

2014–The 66th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards announces its winners. Best Dramatic Series: Mad Men; Best Comedy Series: Modern Family; Best Musical or Variety Series: The Daily Show with Jon Stewart; Best Mini-Series: The Pacific; Best Made for Television Movie: Temple Grandin; Best Reality Series: Top Chef; Best Actor: Bryan Cranston; Best Actress: Kyra Sedgwick; Best Comedy Actor: Jim Parsons; Best Comedy Actress: Edie Falco. The ceremonies are held at the Nokia Theatre, Los Angeles, California. The host is Jimmy Fallon.

2016–Miners in the Philippines criticize the government after a crackdown on mining closes more nickel and copper mines.

2016–Recording engineer, Rudy Van Gelder, dies in his sleep down the hall from his home studio in New Jersey, at age 91. Regarded as possibly the most important recording engineer of jazz, he recorded several thousand jazz sessions, including many recognized as classics, in a career which spanned more than 50 years. Van Gelder worked with many of the great names in the genre, including John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Thelonious Monk, Sonny Rollins, Art Blakey, Joe Henderson, Freddie Hubbard, Wayne Shorter, and Horace Silver. He was most closely associated with Blue Note Records.

2016–Fashion designer, Sonia Rykiel, dies from complications of Parkinson's disease in Paris, France, at age 86. She created the Poor Boy Sweater, which was featured on the cover of French Elle magazine. Her knitwear designs and new fashion techniques led her to be dubbed the "Queen of Knits."


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