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Unique, high quality, antique bisque and cloth dolls

1924–Politician, Vladimir Lenin, dies of neurosyphilis in Gorki, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, at age 53. He served as the leader of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917, and then concurrently as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death.

BC 338–A Macedonian army, led by Philip II, defeats the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea, securing Macedonian hegemony in Greece and the Aegean.

BC 216–The Carthaginian army, led by Hannibal, defeats a numerically superior Roman army at the Battle of Cannae.

461–Majorian is arrested near Tortona (Northern Italy) and deposed by the Suebian General Ricimer as puppet emperor.

640–Pope Severinus dies in Rome, Byzantine Empire.

686–Pope John V dies in Rome, Byzantine Empire.

924–Elfweard of Wessex dies in Oxford, England, at age 21.

1100–William II of England dies from an arrow through his lung in the New Forest, near Brockenhurst, England, at age 43. The King's body was abandoned by the nobles at the place where he fell. A peasant later found it. Over the centuries, it has been thought that one of William's enemies may have had a hand in his death: William's brother, Henry, was among the hunting party that day and benefited directly from William's death, being crowned king shortly thereafter.

1274–Edward I of England returns from the Ninth Crusade and is crowned King 17 days later.

1316–Louis of Burgundy dies of a fever near Achaea, West Greece, Greece, at age 19. It is also thought that he was poisoned by John, Count of Cephalonia.

1343–Olivier de Clisson is found guilty of treason and beheaded at Les Halles in Paris, France. As a result, his wife, Jeanne de Clisson, sells their holdings, buys a fleet of ships, and takes to the sea as a pirate to seek revenge against King Philip VI of France and the nobility.

1375–The first roller skating rink opens in London, England.

1377–Russian troops are defeated in the Battle on Pyana River.

1546–Priest and theologian, Peter Faber, dies of fever in Rome, Papal States, at age 40. He co-founded the Society of Jesus.

1589–Henry III of France dies from a stab wound at the Château de Saint-Cloud in France, at age 37. His assassin was Dominican friar, Jacques Clément.

1610–Henry Hudson sails into what is now known as Hudson Bay, thinking that he had made it through the Northwest Passage and had reached the Pacific Ocean.

1674–Philippe II, Duke of Orléans is born Philippe Charles d'Orléans at the Palace of Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France.

1696–Ottoman sultan, Mahmud I, is born at Edirne Palace in Edirne.

1754–Architect and engineer, Pierre Charles L'Enfant, is born in Paris, Île-de-France, France. He is best known for designing the layout of the streets of Washington, D.C., the L'Enfant Plan.

1776–The formal signing of the Declaration of Independence takes place, with John Hancock being the first with his signature. July 4th was the actual date of the vote on American independence.

1776–Louis François, Prince of Conti, dies in Paris, France, at age 58.

1788–Painter, Thomas Gainsborough, dies of cancer in London, England, at age 61. His most famous work is Blue Boy. He preferred landscapes to portraits, and is credited as the originator of the 18th-century British landscape school.

1790–The first U.S. Census is conducted.

1798–In the French Revolutionary Wars, the Battle of the Nile concludes in a British victory.

1824–Fifth Avenue is opened in New York City. It became one of the most famous thoroughfares in the world, and the home of many beautiful, fashionable stores.

1830–Charles X of France abdicates the throne in favor of his grandson, Henri.

1832–Henry Steel Olcott, the first President of the Theosophical Society, is born in Orange, New Jersey. Olcott was the first well-known American of European ancestry to make a formal conversion to Buddhism. During his time in Sri Lanka, India, Olcott strove to revive Buddhism within the region, while compiling the tenets of Buddhism for the education of Westerners. It was during this period that he wrote the Buddhist Catechism, which is still used today.

1834–French sculptor, Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, is born. He is best known for designing the Statue of Liberty. Bartholdi's other major works include the Bartholdi Fountain in Washington, D.C. and the Statue of the Marquis de Lafayette at Union Square in New York City. He also created and The Lion of Belfort: a massive sculpture built into the side of a mountain (measuring over 72 feet long and 36 feet high), symbolizing the heroic resistance of the French in holding off an assault by the Prussian army at the end of the Franco-Prussian War.

1835–Businessman, Elisha Gray, is born in Barnesville, Ohio. He co-founded the Western Electric Manufacturing Company. He is also considered to be the father of the modern music synthesizer.

1849–Muhammad Ali of Egypt dies at Ras el-Tin Palace, Alexandria, Egypt Eyalet, Ottoman Empire (present-day Egypt), at age 80.

1859–Politician and educator, Horace Mann, dies in Yellow Springs, Ohio, at age 63. He pioneered public schools in America. Most states adopted one version or another of the system of education that he established in his home state of Massachusetts.

1868–Constantine I of Greece is born in Athens, Greece.

1869–Japan's samurai, farmer, artisan, merchant class system is abolished as part of the Meiji Restoration reforms.

1870–Tower Subway, the world's first underground tube railway, opens in London, England.

1873–The Clay Street Hill Railroad begins operating the first cable car of the cable car system in San Francisco, California.

1876–Geologist, Pingali Venkayya, is born in India. He designed the Flag of India: his version was first designed for the Indian National Congress and subsequently modified in 1947.

1876–Old West Sheriff, Wild Bill Hickok, dies from being shot from behind while playing poker in a saloon in Deadwood, Dakota Territory (present-day South Dakota), at age 39. His murderer was gambler, Jack McCall. McCall walked to within a few feet of Hickok, drew a pistol and shouted, "Damn you! Take that!" before firing at him point blank. McCall's bullet hit Hickok in the back of the head, killing him instantly.

1892–Movie studio head, Jack L. Warner, is born Jakob Wonsal in London, Ontario, Canada. He co-founded Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California. His career spanned 45 years, its duration surpassing that of any other of the Hollywood studio moguls. He opposed European fascism and criticized Nazi Germany well before America's involvement in World War II. An opponent of Communism, after the war Warner appeared as a friendly witness before the House Un-American Activities Committee, voluntarily naming screenwriters who had been fired as suspected Communists or sympathizers. Despite his controversial public image, Warner remained a force in the motion picture industry until his retirement in the early 1970s.

1900–Singer and actress, Helen Morgan, is born Helen Riggins in Danville, Illinois. A quintessential torch singer, she made a big splash in the Chicago club scene in the 1920s. She suffered from bouts of alcoholism, and despite her notable success, her stage career was relatively short. She is portrayed by Anne Blyth in the feature film The Helen Morgan Story.

1901–Engineer, Elisha Gray, is born in Barnesville, Ohio. He co-founded Western Electric Manufacturing Company.

1902–Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria, is born Azer Youssef Atta in Damanhour, Egypt.

1903–The Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising against the Ottoman Empire begins.

1905–Actress, Myrna Loy, is born Myrna Adele Williams in Helena, Montana.She appeared in the films The Great Zeigfeld, Libeled Lady, The Rains Came, Love Crazy, The Best Years of Our Lives, The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer, Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House, The Red Pony, Cheaper by the Dozen, Belles on Their Toes, Lonelyhearts, From the Terrace, Midnight Lace, and The April Fools.

1914–In World War I, the German occupation of Luxembourg begins.

1914–Actress, Beatrice (Whitney) Straight, is born in Old Westbury, New York. She appeared in the films Phone Call from a Stranger, Patterns, The Nun’s Story, The Young Lovers, Network, The Promise, Endless Love, Poltergeist, Two of a Kind, and Deceived.

1915–Actor, Gary (Fred) Merrill, is born in Hartford, Connecticut. He is best known for the role of Bette Davis’ lover in All About Eve. He appeared in the films Twelve O’Clock High, Where the Sidewalk Ends, Phone Call from a Stranger, A Blueprint for Murder, Witness to Murder, The Missouri Traveler, The Great Imposter, The Pleasure of His Company, Mysterious Island, Destination Inner Space, Clambake, The Incident, The Power, and Thieves. He was married to actress, Bette Davis.

1916–In World War I, Austrian sabotage causes the sinking of the Italian battleship, Leonardo da Vinci, in Taranto, Italy.

1918–Japan announces that it is deploying troops to Siberia in the aftermath of World War I.

1918–The first general strike in Canadian history takes place in Vancouver.

1918–Entreprenuer, Jim Delligatti, is born Michael James Delligatti in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. He was the creator of McDonald’s iconic burger, the Big Mac. It was advertised as “two all-beef patties, special sauce, lettuce, cheese, pickles, onions on a sesame-seed bun.”

1919–Actor, Nehemiah Persoff, is born in Jerusalem, British Mandate of Palestine. He appeared in the films On the Waterfront, The Wrong Man, Some Like It Hot, Fate is the Hunter, The Greatest Story Ever Told, The People Next Door, Red Sky at Morning, Yentl, The Last Temptation of Christ, and Twins.

1920–Pilot, Ormer Locklear, dies in a airplane movie stunt crash in Los Angeles, California, at age 28. He was considered the foremost "aviation stunt man in the world," during and immediately after World War I.

1921–Operatic tenor, Enrico Caruso, dies from peritonitis arising from a burst subrenal abscess in Naples, Italy, at age 48. Caruso made approximately 290 commercially released recordings from 1902 to 1920. His 25-year career included 863 appearances at the New York Metropolitan Opera.

1922–A typhoon hits Shantou, Republic of China, killing more than 50,000 people.

1922–Philanthropist, Betsy Bloomingdale, is born Betty Lee Newling in Los Angeles, California. In 2009, she was the subject of an exhibit at the Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising called, "High Style: Betsy Bloomingdale and the Haute Couture," which displayed 60 Haute Couture gowns that she had collected since the 1960s. She was married to businessman, Alfred S. Bloomingdale.

1922–Inventor, Alexander Graham Bell, dies of complications from diabetes in Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Canada, at age 75. He was an eminent Scottish-born scientist, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.

1923–Politician, Shimon Peres, is born Szymon Perski in Wiszniew, Poland (present-day Belarus). He was the ninth President of Israel. Peres served twice as the Prime Minister of Israel and twice as Interim Prime Minister, and he was a member of 12 cabinets in a political career spanning nearly 70 years. He was a relative of American film star, Lauren Bacall, (who was born Betty Joan Persky).

1923–President Warren G. Harding dies in office of of a cerebral hemorrhage caused by heart disease in San Francisco, California, at age 57. He was the 29th President of the United States. Vice President Calvin Coolidge is sworn in as President.

1924–Novelist, James (Arthur) Baldwin, is born in Harlem, New York. He was a playwright, poet, essayist, and social activist. Baldwin's works explored the personal, social, and psychological ramifications associated with being black and gay in 20th-century America. His best known work is his first novel Go Tell It on the Mountain.

1924–Actor, (John) Carroll O'Connor, is born in Manhattan, New York. He is best known for the role of Archie Bunker on the TV series All in the Family. He appeared in the films A Fever in the Blood, Parrish, By Loved Possessed, Lonely Are the Brave, Cleopatra, In Harm’s Way, What Did You Do in the War, Daddy? Hawaii, Not with My Wife, You Don't!, Warning Shot, Point Blank, For Love of Ivy, Death of a Gunfighter, Marlowe, Kelly’s Heroes, Doctor’ Wives, and Law and Disorder.

1924–Politician, Vladimir Lenin, dies of neurosyphilis in Gorki, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, at age 53. He served as the leader of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917, and then concurrently as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death.

1932–The positron (antiparticle of the electron) is discovered by Carl D. Anderson.

1932–Businessman, Lamar Hunt, is born in El Dorado, Arkansas. He co-founded the American Football League and World Championship Tennis.

1932–Actor, Peter (Seamus) O’Toole, is born in Leeds, Yorkshire, England. Known for his charisma and off-screen carousing, the actor suffered health issues in the 1970s as a result of his drinking, before making a big-screen comeback in The Stunt Man and My Favorite Year. He also appeared in the films Kidnapped, Lawrence of Arabia, Becket, Lord Jim, What’s New Pussycat?, The Sandpiper, Casino Royale, The Lion in Winter, Goodbye, Mr. Chips, Man of La Mancha, Creator, The Last Emperor, and Venus.

1934–Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of Germany, following the death of President Paul von Hindenburg.

1934–Politician, Paul von Hindenburg, dies of lung cnancer in Neudeck near Rosenberg, East Prussia, Nazi Germany (present-day Ogrodzieniec near Susz, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland), at age 86. He was the second President of Germany (1925-1934).

1937–The Marihuana Tax Act is passed in America, rendering marijuana and all its by-products illegal.

1937–Musician, (Eric) Garth Hudson, is born in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. As the organist, keyboardist, and saxophonist for The Band, he was a principal architect of the group's unique sound. Hudson has been called "the most brilliant organist in the rock world" by Keyboard magazine. He has been a much-in-demand and respected session musician, performing with dozens of artists.

1939–Albert Einstein sends a letter to President Franklin Roosevelt, urging creation of an atomic weapons research program. Einstein warns the President of the potential for military use of atomic energy, especially in the making of a bomb of astronomical power.

1939–Movie producer and director, Wes Craven, is born Wesley Earl Craven in Cleveland, Ohio. He is known for his work on horror films, particularly slasher films, but he is best known for creating the A Nightmare on Elm Street franchise, featuring the Freddy Krueger character. His other films include The Last House on the Left, The Hills Have Eyes, Swamp Thing, The Serpent and the Rainbow, and Scream (1, 2, 3, and 4).

1939–Mystic and writer, Harvey Spencer Lewis, dies at age 55. He was a noted Rosicrucian occultist and the founder and first Imperator of the Ancient and Mystical Order Rosae Crucis (AMORC) in America.

1941–Doris Coley, of The Shirelles, is born in Goldsboro, North Carolina.

1942–Writer, Isabel Allende, is born in Lima, Peru. She is thought to be the world's most widely read Spanish language author. Several of her works contain elements of the the magic realist tradition, including her best known novels, The House of the Spirits and City of the Beasts.

1943–The Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 is rammed by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri and sinks. Lt. John F. Kennedy, future U.S. President, saves all but two of his crew.

1943–During World War II, Jewish prisoners stage a revolt at Treblinka, one of the deadliest of Nazi death camps, where approximately 900,000 persons were murdered in less than 18 months.

1944–The Socialist Republic of Macedonia is founded.

1944–Musician, Jim Capaldi, of Traffic, is born Nicola James Capaldi in Evesham, Worcestershire, England. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as co-founder (along with Stevie Winwood) of the original group Traffic. Capaldi and Winwood wrote many of the group's major hits and most of the tracks on the band's 10 albums.

1945–Actress, Joanna Cassidy, is born Joanna Virginia Caskey in Haddonfield, New Jersey. She appeared in the films The Laughing Policeman, Bank Shot, Stay Hungry, The Late Show, Night Games, Blade Runner, Under Fire, 1969, and Chain Reaction.

1947–A British South American Airways Avro Lancastrian airliner crashes into a mountain during a flight from Buenos Aires, Argentina, to Santiago, Chile. The wreckage would not be found for over 50 years.

1948–Singer-songwriter, Andy Fairweather Low, is born in Ystrad Mynach, Wales. He was a founding member of 1960s British pop band, Amen Corner, and has toured extensively with Roger Waters, Eric Clapton, and Bill Wyman's Rhythm Kings.

1950–Actress, Kathryn Harrold, is born in Tazewell, Virginia. She was seen on the TV shows The Rockford Files, I’ll Fly Away, The Larry Sanders Show, Chicago Hope, and Desperate Housewives. She appeared in the films Nightwing, The Hunter, Modern Romance, Yes, Giorgio, Heartbreakers, Into the Night, and Raw Deal.

1950–Attorney and judge, Lance (Allan) Ito, is born in Los Angeles, California. He is a former Los Angeles County Superior Court judge, best known for presiding over the O.J. Simpson murder trial.

1950–Entrepreneur, Ken Kutaragi, is born in Tokyo, Japan. He created the PlayStation video player.

1950–Princess Elisabeth of Luxembourg dies in a car accident in Schloss Hohenburg, Hohenburg, Bavaria, Germany, at age 49.

1951–Singer-songwriter, Andrew (Maurice) Gold, is born in Burbank, California. He had a big hit with the song Lonely Boy. Gold played and recorded with dozens of artists, including Carly Simon, Jennifer Warnes, Linda Ronstadt, Stephen Bishop, America, Nicolette Larson, Neil Diamond, Eric Carmen, Leo Sayer, Freddie Mercury, Karla Bonoff, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, John Lennon, Brian Wilson, James Taylor, Roy Orbison, Don Henley, Bette Midler, Diana Ross, and Cher. His parents were singer, Marni Nixon, and film composer, Ernest Gold.

1951–Joe Lynn Turner, of Deep Purple, is born in Hackensack, New Jersey.

1953–Child actor, Butch Patrick, is born Patrick Alan Lilley in Inglewood, California. He is best known for the role of Eddie Munster in the TV series The Munsters. He appeared in the films The Two Little Bears, Hand of Death, A Child is Waiting, One Man’s Way, Munster, Go Home!, The One and Only Genuine Original Family Band, 80 Steps to Jonah, Scary Movie, Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star, and It Came from Trafalgar.

1956–An article in Life magazine entitled, “Elvis Presley... He Can’t Be... But He Is,” reports on the rock singer’s current popularity. Elvis has grossed $6 million in record sales, and is deluged by 3,000 fan letters a week.

1959–Comedienne-actress, Victoria (Lynn) Jackson, is born in Miami, Florida. She is best known as a cast member of the TV sketch comedy series Saturday Night Live. She appeared in the films Baby Boom, The Pick-up Artist, The Couch Trip, Casual Sex?, Dream a Little Drea , UHF, Family Business, and I Love You to Death.

1959–Singer, Johnny Kemp, is born Jonathan Kemp in Nassau, Bahamas. His hits include Dancin' with Myself and Just Got Paid.

1959–Singer, (Patricia) Apollonia Kotero, is born in Santa Monica, California. She is best known for co-starring in Prince's film Purple Rain, and as the lead singer for the girl group Apollonia 6.

1961–Pete de Freitas, drummer for Echo & the Bunnymen, is born Peter Louis Vincent de Freitas in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

1962–Robert Zimmerman legally changes his name to Bob Dylan.

1963–It is reported that The Beatles, Gerry and the Pacemakers, and Billy J. Kramer with the Dakotas, have sold (in the U.K. only) over 2.5 million records in six months.

1963–Fashion designer, Laura (Eugenia) Bennett, is born in New Orleans, Louisiana. She was one of the four finalists on Bravo's reality series Project Runway (Season 3).

1964–In the Gulf of Tonkin incident in Viet Nam, North Vietnamese gunboats allegedly fire on the U.S. destroyer USS Maddox.

1967–George Harrison visits Ravi Shankar’s music school in Los Angeles, California.

1968–An earthquake hits Casiguran, Aurora, Philippines, killing more than 270 people and wounding 261 others.

1969–Bob Dylan shows up unexpectedly to his 10-year high school reunion in Hibbing, Minnesota. He and his wife leave early when a drunk tries to pick a fight with him.

1969–Badfinger records Come and Get It at Abbey Road Studios in London, England.

1972–Brian Cole, of The Association, dies of a heroin overdose. He played on the hits Windy, Cherish, and Never My Love.

1973–A flash fire kills 51 people at the Summerland Amusement Centre in Douglas, Isle of Man.

1974–John and Michelle Phillips, Lou Adler, and Sonny Bono attend funeral services for Mama Cass Elliot.

1976–Film producer and director, Fritz Lang, dies in Beverly Hills, California, at age 85. His most famous films include the groundbreaking Metropolis, and M, which is considered a precursor to the film noir genre. His other films include Fury, The Return of Frank James, Moontide, Rancho Notorious, The Blue Gardenia, The Big Heat, and While the City Sleeps.

1977–Actor, Edward (Walter) Furlong, is born in Glendale, California. He appeared in the films Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Pet Sematary Two, American Heart, A Home of Our Own, The Grass Harp, and Before and After.

1978–Carlos Chávez, Mexican composer, conductor, and journalist, dies in Mexico City, Mexico, at age 79. He founded the Mexican Symphonic Orchestra.

1978–Comedienne, Totie Fields, dies of pulmonary embolism in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 48. She made multiple appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show, The Mike Douglas Show, and The Merv Griffin Show.

1978–Businessman, Antony Noghès, dies in Monte Carlo, Monaco, at age 87. He founded the Monaco Grand Prix. He suggested the international adoption of the checkered flag to end races.

1980–A terrorist bombing of the Central Station at Bologna, Italy, kills 85 people and wounds 200 others.

1980–Musician, Leo Soileau, dies in Ville Platte, Louisiana, at age 76. He was one of the most prolific Cajun recording artists of the 1930s and 1940s, recording over 100 songs. He was only the second Cajun musician to make a record, and the first to record Cajun fiddle. Leo Soileau recorded Cajun music until the start of World War II, when Decca decided to stop recording Cajun artists.

1985–Delta Air Lines Flight 191, a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, crashes at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport killing 137 people.

1989–Pakistan is re-admitted to the Commonwealth of Nations after having restored democracy for the first time since 1972.

1989–A massacre is carried out by an Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka, killing 64 ethnic Tamil civilians.

1990–Iraq invades Kuwait, eventually leading to the Gulf War.

1997–Beat Generation writer, William S. Burroughs, dies of a heart attack in Lawrence, Kansas, at age 83. He was buried in the family plot in Bellefontaine Cemetery, St. Louis, Missouri. His marker is inscribed only with his full name and the words “American Writer.” He is best known for his novel, Naked Lunch, based on his experiences as a drug addict.

1998–The Second Congo War begins.

1998–Ventriloquist-puppeteer, Shari Lewis, dies of cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 65. She introduced millions of young Baby Boomers to her characters Lamb Chop, Charlie Horse, and Hush Puppy, on her popular 1950s kid’s program The Shari Lewis Show.

2005–Air France Flight 358 crashes at Pearson Airport in Toronto, Canada. All passengers and crew survive.

2014–At least 146 people are killed and more than 114 others are injured in an explosion at a factory near Shanghai.

2016–Jordan Rodgers, former Vanderbilt quarterback and latest hunk to be chosen on The Bachelorette, is hired by ESPN to serve as a studio analyst for the SEC Network on the news and information show "SEC Now."

2016–Actor, David Huddleston, dies of heart and kidney disease in Santa Fe, New Mexico, at age 85. He was seen widely on television, including the shows Adam-12, Bewitched, Bonanza, Gunsmoke, Kung Fu, The Rockford Files, Police Woman, Charlie’s Angels, Columbo, and The Wonder Years. He appeared in the films Rio Lobo, Brian’s Song, Bad Company, Blazing Saddles, Billy Two Hats, Breakheart Pass, Capricorn One, Smokey and the Bandit II, Joe’s Apartment, The Big Lebowski, and The Producers.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: William II of England; Peter Faber; the Declaration of Independence; Henry Steel Olcott; Wild Bill Hickok; Jack L. Warner; Myrna Loy; Nehemiah Persoff; Betsy Bloomingdale; Carroll O'Connor; Peter O'Toole; Wes Craven, Joanna Cassidy; Andrew Gold; Victoria Jackson; Laura Bennett; Fritz Lang; Leo Soileau; and Shari Lewis.

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