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1945–The atom bomb is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, by the American B-29 bomber, The Enola Gay. It is the first time an atomic bomb has been dropped over a populated place, and the first time a nuclear weapon is used in warfare. The after effects of this World War II event are still felt today.

258–Pope Sixtus II dies in Rome, Roman Empire. He was martyred along with seven deacons, including Lawrence of Rome, during the persecution of the Catholic Church by Emperor Valerian.

523–Pope Hormisdas dies in Rome, Italy.

750–Muslim caliph, Marwan II, dies in battle in Faiyum, Egypt, at age 59.

1180–Emperor Go-Toba of Japan is born in Gojo-machi no Tei, Heian Kyo (Kyoto).

1221–Spanish Priest, Saint Dominic, dies in Bologna (present-day Emilia-Romagna), Italy, at age 51. He founded the Dominican Order.

1272–Stephen V of Hungary dies on Csepel Island on the Danube River in Hungary, at age 31.

1284–The Republic of Pisa is defeated in the Battle of Meloria by the Republic of Genoa, thus losing its naval dominance in the Mediterranean.

1414–Ladislaus of Naples dies at the Château de l'Oeur in Naples, Italy, at age 37. Rumors that he had been poisoned remain unproven. He was succeeded by his sister, Joanna II of Naples, the last member of the senior Angevin line in Italy.

1458–Pope Callixtus III dies in Rome, Papal States, at age 59. He was the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Callixtus" upon his election.

1506–The Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeated the Crimean Khanate in the Battle of Kletsk.

1538–Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada.

1609–Politician, Richard Bennett, is born in in Wiveliscombe, Somerset, England. He was Colonial Governor of Virginia.

1623–Anne Hathaway, wife of William Shakespeare, dies in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England, at age 67. She outlived her husband by seven years. Very little is known about her beyond a few references in legal documents, but her personality and relationship to Shakespeare have been the subject of much speculation by historians and creative writers.

1661–The Treaty of The Hague is signed by Portugal and the Dutch Republic.

1697–Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, is born in Brussels, Netherlands.

1765–Politician, Petros Mavromichalis, is born in Limeni, Mani, Greece. He was the second Prime Minister of Greece. He was the leader of the Maniot people during the first half of the 19th century. His family had a long history of revolts against the Ottoman Empire, which ruled most of what is now Greece.

1787–Sixty proof sheets of the Constitution of the United States are delivered to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1806–Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, abdicates, ending the Holy Roman Empire.

1809–Poet, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, is born in Lincolnshire, England. He is best known for the long poem he dedicated to his best friend, Arthur Henry Hallam, “In Memoriam A.H.H.” He was appointed Poet Laureate in 1850.

1819–Norwich University is founded in Vermont as the first private military school in the United States.

1820–Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia dies in Oatlands Park, Weybridge, Surrey, England, at age 53. She was Duchess of York and Albany, following her marriage to Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany.

1825–Bolivia gains independence from Spain.

1845–The Russian Geographical Society is founded in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

1861–The United Kingdom annexes Lagos, Nigeria.

1861–Edith Roosevelt, the second wife of President Theodore Roosevelt, is born Edith Kermit Carow in Norwich, Connecticut. She was the 27th First Lady of the United States. She was the first First Lady to employ a full-time, salaried social secretary. Her tenure resulted in the creation of an official staff, and her formal dinners and ceremonial processions served to elevate the position of First Lady.

1862–The Confederate ironclad CSS Arkansas is scuttled on the Mississippi River after suffering catastrophic engine failure near Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

1870–In the Franco-Prussian War, the Prussians win the Battle of Spicheren and the Battle of Wörth.

1881–Gossip columnist, Louella Parsons, is born Louella Rose Oettinger in Freeport, Illinois. At her peak, her columns were read by 20 million people in 400 newspapers worldwide. She remained “Queen of Hollywood” until the arrival of flamboyant Hedda Hopper, who displayed similar talents, and with whom she feuded viciously for years.

1881–Religious leader, James Springer White, dies from the result of a stroke at Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle Creek, Michigan, at age 60. He co-founded the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

1890–Murderer, William Kemmler, becomes the first person to be executed by the electric chair at Auburn Prison in New York.

1900–Geophysicist and businessman, Cecil Howard Green, is born in Whitefield, England. He founded Texas Instruments.

1901–Kiowa land in Oklahoma is opened for white settlement, effectively dissolving the contiguous reservation.

1911–Actress, Lucille (Désirée) Ball, is born in Jamestown, New York. She is best known for her starring role in the TV sitcom I Love Lucy. She also starred in the TV shows The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour, The Lucy Show, Here's Lucy, and Life with Lucy. She appeared in the films Follow the Fleet, Stage Door, Room Service, Five Came Back, Too Many Girls, The Big Street, DuBarry Was a Lady, Lured, Sorrowful Jones, Fancy Pants, The Fuller Brush Girl, The Long Long Trailer, Forever, Darling, The Facts of Life, Critic’s Choice, Yours, Mine and Ours, Mame, and Stone Pillow. She was married to bandleader, Desi Arnaz. Their childen are Luci Arnaz and Desi Arnaz, Jr.

1912–The Bull Moose Party meets at the Chicago Coliseum in Chicago, Illinois.

1914–Two days after the United Kingdom declared war on Germany over the German invasion of Belgium, 10 German U-boats leave their base in Heligoland to attack Royal Navy warships in the North Sea.

1914–Serbia declares war on Germany and Austria declares war on Russia.

1914–Ellen Axson Wilson, wife of President Woodrow Wilson, dies of Bright's disease at the White House in Washington, D.C., at age 54. She murmured at the end, "...take good care of my husband." She was the 29th First Lady of the United States.

1917–Actor, Robert Mitchum, is born Robert Charles Durman Mitchum in Bridgeport, Connecticut. He appeared in the films Gung Ho!, Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, Nevada, The Story of G.I. Joe, West of the Pecos, Out of the Past, Rachel and the Stranger, The Red Pony, Holiday Affair, His Kind of Woman, Macao, The Lusty Men, River of No Return, Track of the Cat, Not as a Stranger, The Night of the Hunter, Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison, Thunder Road, Home from the Hill, The Sundowners, Cape Fear, Two for the Seesaw, What a Way to Go!, The Way West, 5 Card Stud, Ryan’s Daughter, Farewell, My Lovely, and The Big Sleep. His son is actor, James Mitchum.

1918–Norman Granz, founder the Verve and Pablo labels, is born in Los Angeles, California Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Oscar Peterson, Lester Young, Art Tatum, and Count Basie all benefited from his patronage.

1918–Norman Granz, founder the Verve and Pablo record labels, is born in Los Angeles, California. He was a fundamental figure in American jazz, especially from about 1947 to 1960. Granz was also acknowledged as "the most successful impresario in the history of jazz."

1920–Actress, Selma Diamond, is born in London, Ontario, Canada. She is best known for the role of Selma Hacker on the TV series Night Court.

Actress, Barbara Bates, is born in Denver, Colorado. She is best known for the role of Phoebe in the film All About Eve. She also appeared in the films Strange Holiday, Lady on a Train, Night in Paradise, Romance on the High Seas, Johnny Belinda, Adventures of Don Juan, Cheaper by the Dozen, Belles on Their Toes, The Outcasts of Poker Flat, The Caddy, and Rhapsody.

1926–Gertrude Ederle becomes the first woman to swim across the English Channel.

1926–In New York City, the Warner Bros. Vitaphone system premieres with the movie Don Juan starring John Barrymore.

1928–Pop-art painter and filmmaker, Andy Warhol, is born Andrew Warhola in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He is best known for his painting of a Campbell Soup can and bright colored multi-portraits of the rich and famous. It was Warhol who said “someday everyone will be famous for fifteen minutes.” Warhol came to the fine art arena from a successful career in commercial illustration, ultimately becoming a household name and infamous character of the Sixties. His studio, The Factory, became a gathering place for everyone from Hollywood celebrites and wealthy patrons to street people. Warhol was also an innovator in computer generated art and the founder of Interview magazine.

1930–Judge Joseph Force Crater steps into a taxi in New York and disappears, never to be seen again.

1931–Musician, “Bix” Beiderbecke, dies of alcoholism in Queens, New York, at age 28. He was an American jazz cornetist, jazz pianist, and composer. He has been known as the “young man with a horn,” with a film by that name made about his life, starring Kirk Douglas. Regardless, Beiderbecke remains the subject of scholarly controversy regarding his true name, the cause of his death, and the importance of his contributions to jazz.

1934–Science fiction writer, Piers Anthony, is born Piers Anthony Dillingham Jacob in Oxford, England. He is best known for his series of novels set in the fictional realm of Xanth. He has stated that one of his most rewarding achievements has been writing a book for every letter of the alphabet, from Anthonology to Zombie Lover.

1938–Actor, Paul Bartel, is born in Brooklyn, New York. He is best known for his black comedy Eating Raoul. He appeared in the films Big Bad Mama, Death Race 2000, Grand Theft Auto, Rock ‘n’ Roll High School, Heartbeeps, Heart Like a Wheel, Into the Night, Lust in the Dust, Amazon Woman on the Moon, Baja California, Posse, The Usual Suspects, and Joe’s Apartment.

1938–Actor, Peter Bonerz, is born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He is best known for the role of Dr. Jerry Robinson on The Bob Newhart Show.

1940–Estonia is illegally annexed by the Soviet Union.

1940–Columbia Records cuts the price of its 12-inch classical records. The records were priced to sell at $1.00. Within two weeks, RCA Victor did the same and ended a record-buying slump brought on by disinterested consumers.

1942–Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands becomes the first reigning queen to address a joint session of the U.S. Congress.

1943–Computer scientist, Jon Postel, is born Jonathan Bruce Postel in Altadena, California. He made many significant contributions to the development of the Internet, particularly with respect to standards. He is known principally for being the Editor of the Request for Comment (RFC) document series, and for administering the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). In his lifetime he was known as the "god of the Internet" for his comprehensive influence on the medium.

1945–The atom bomb is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, by the American B-29 bomber, The Enola Gay. It is the first time an atomic bomb has been dropped over a populated place, and the first time a nuclear weapon is used in warfare. Around 70,000 people are killed instantly, and some tens of thousands die in subsequent years from burns and radiation poisoning. The after effects of this World War II event are still felt today.

1945–Politician, Hiram Johnson, dies in the Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, at age 78. He was a leading progressive and isolationist politician from California, who served as the 23rd Governor of California from 1911 to 1917, and as a U.S. Senator from 1917 to 1945. He was Theodore Roosevelt's running mate in the 1912 presidential election on the Progressive (also known as the "Bull Moose") party.

1946–Judy Craig, of The Chiffons, is born in New York. The group had hits with He's So Fine and One Fine Day.

1950–Actor, (Willie) Dorian Harewood, is born in Dayton, Ohio. He appeared in the films Panic in Echo Park, Gray Lady Down, Looker, Against All Odds, Tank, The Falcon and the Snowman, Full Metal Jacket, and Pacific Heights.

1951–Actress, Catherine (Mary) Hicks, is born in New York, New York. She appeared in the films Marilyn: The Untold Story, Garbo Talks, The Razor’s Edge, Peggy Sue Got Married, Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, and Child’s Play.

1956–After going bankrupt in 1955, the American broadcaster, DuMont Television Network, makes its final broadcast, a boxing match from St. Nicholas Arena in New York.

1958–Randy DeBarge, of DeBarge, is born William Randall DeBarge in Detroit, Michigan.

1959–Film director, screenwriter, and playwright, Preston Sturges, dies of a heart attack at the Algonquin Hotel in New York, New York, at age 60. He was writing his autobiography at the time of his death. His films include The Invisible Man, Imitation of Life, Remember the Night, The Great McGinty, The Lady Eve, Sullivan's Travels, The Palm Beach Story, The Miracle of Morgan's Creek, Unfaithfully Yours, and Rock-a-Bye Baby.

1960–Cuba nationalizes American and foreign-owned property in the nation.

1962–After 300 years of British colonial rule, Jamaica gains its independence.

1964–Prometheus, the world's oldest tree (a bristlecone pine), is cut down.

1964–Actor, Sir Cedric Hardwicke, dies of cancer in New York, New York, at age 71. He appeared in the films King Soloman’s Mines, Stanley and Livingstone, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Nicholas Nickleby, I Remember Mama, Rope, Richard II, Around the World in 80 Days, and The Ten Commandments.

1965–President Lyndon Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law.

1970–At New York's Shea Stadium, Janis Joplin, Steppenwolf, Johnny Winter, and Paul Simon headline a benefit protesting the Vietnam War. The event, held on the 25th anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima, draws 20,000 people.

1970–Film director and screenwriter, M. Night Shyamalan, is born Manoj Shyamalan in Mahé, Puducherry, India. His films include Wide Awake, The Sixth Sense, Stuart Little, Unbreakable, Signs, The Village, The Happening, After Earth, The Visit, and Split.

1972–Geri Halliwell, of The Spice Girls, is born Geraldine Estelle Halliwell in Watford, Hertfordshire, England. Within the singing group, she was known as Ginger Spice. They they sold over 80 million records worldwide, making them the best-selling girl group of all time.

1973–Politician, Fulgencio Batista, dies of a heart attack in Marbella, Andalusia, Spain, at age 72. He was the ninth President of Cuba. Two days before, a team of assassins from Castro's Cuba were to carry out a plan to assassinate him.

1974–Actress, Ever Dawn Carradine, is born in Los Angeles, California. She is best known for her roles on the TV shows Once and Again and 24. Her parents are actor, Robert Carradine and Susan Snyder.

1976–Zulfikar Ali Bhutto lays the foundation stone of Port Qasim, Karachi.

1976–Child actress, Soleil Moon Frye, is born in Glendora, California. She is best known for the title role in the sitcom Punky Brewster.

1978–Pope Paul VI dies of a heart attack in Castel Gandolfo, Italy, at age 80.

1978–Architect, Edward Durell Stone, dies in New York, New York, at age 76. He designed Radio City Music Hall, Museum of Modern Art, and the Kennedy Center.

1982–Model, Adrianne Curry, is born in Joliet, Illinois. She is best known as the star of VH1's reality show My Fair Brady, and being the first winner of the reality TV series America's Next Top Model. She was married to actor, Christopher Knight.

1982–Singer, Jordis Unga, is born Jordis Losana Sikahema Unga in Chicopee, Massachusetts. She was a contestant on the second season of NBC's The Voice as a part of "Team Blake."

1985–Politician, Forbes Burnham, dies after undergoing throat surgery in Georgetown, East Coast Demerara, Guyana, at age 62. He was the second President of Guyana.

1986–A low-pressure system off the coast of New South Wales dumps a record 13 inches of rain in one day on Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

1988–The Tompkins Square Park Riot in New York City spurs a reform of the New York Police Department (NYPD), who is held responsible for the event.

1988–The Traveling Wilburys begin a surprise mini-tour prior to releasing their debut album. The group consists of George Harrison, Jeff Lynne, Bob Dylan, Rob Orbison, and Tom Petty.

1989–Hubert Beuve-Méry, publisher and editor of Le Monde, dies in Fontainebleau, France, at age 87.

1990–The United Nations Security Council orders a global trade embargo against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.

1991–Tim Berners-Lee releases files describing his idea for the World Wide Web and it debuts as a publicly available service on the Internet.

1991–Takako Doi, Chair of the Social Democratic Party, becomes Japan's first female Speaker of the House of Representatives.

1991–Roland Michener, Governor General of Canada, dies in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, at age 91.

1991–Newscaster, Harry Reasoner, dies from a blood clot in the brain received from a fall at his home in Westport, Connecticut, at age 68. He was a journalist for ABC and CBS News, known for his inventive use of language as a television commentator. He was a founder of the TV news program 60 Minutes.

1996–NASA announces that the ALH 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, contains evidence of primitive life forms.

1997–Korean Air Flight 801 crashes at Nimitz Hill, Guam, killing 228 of the 254 people on board.

2004–Funk musician, Rick James, dies of a heart attack in Los Angeles, California, at age 56. He was known as the “King of Punk Funk” for his mix of funky soul and underground-inspired rock. His hits include Mary Jane and Super Freak.

2008–A military junta led by Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz stages a coup d'état in Mauritania, overthrowing President Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi.

2009–Willy DeVille, guitarist for Mink DeVille, dies of pancreatic cancer in New York, New York, at age 58.

2009–Movie director, John Hughes, dies of a heart attack in Manhattan, New York, at age 59. His films include Mr. Mom, National Lampoon’s Vacation, Sixteen Candles, The Breakfast Club, Weird Science, Pretty in Pink, Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, Planes, Trains and Automobiles, Home Alone, and Beethoven.

2010–Flash floods across a large part of Jammu and Kashmir, India, damage 71 towns and kills at least 255 people.

2011–A march in protest of the death of Mark Duggan in Tottenham, London, England, ends in a riot, sparking off a wave of rioting throughout the country over the following four nights.

2011–A U.S. military helicopter is shot down, killing 38 U.S. special forces members and a working dog, making it the deadliest single event for the United States in the War in Afghanistan.

2012–NASA's Curiosity rover lands on the surface of Mars.

2012–Composer-arranger, Marvin Hamlisch, dies in Los Angeles, California, at age 68. He wrote the music for many films, including Save the Tiger, The Way We Were, The Sting, The Spy Who Loved Me, Same Time, Next Year, Chapter Two, Ordinary People, Sophie’s Choice, Three Men and a Baby, Shirley Valentine, Frankie and Johnny, and The Mirror Has Two Faces. His work on Broadway includes A Chorus Line, They’re Playing Our Song, and The Goodbye Girl.

2015–After 35 years, the Ames Stradivarius violin that was stolen from renowned violinist, Roman Totenberg, surfaces. It was made in Italy in 1734, by Antonio Stradivari and is one of several hundred Stradivarius instruments known to exist. A child prodigy in his native Poland, Roman Totenberg bought the Stradivarius in 1943 for $15,000 (more than $200,000 in present-day dollars) and it was the only instrument he performed with until it was stolen. He kept performing into his nineties and taught at Boston University until he died in 2012.

2015–After 16 years, comedian, Jon Stewart, hosts the last broadcast of The Daily Show on Comedy Central.

2015–A suicide bomb attack kills at least 15 people at a mosque in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

2015–Golfer, Louise Suggs, dies in Sarasota, Florida, at age 91. After her successful amateur career, she turned professional in 1948, and went on to win 58 professional tournaments, including 11 majors. She was one of the co-founders of the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) in 1950.

2016–The “scary Lucy” statue in Celeron, New York, is finally relaced with a beautiful one that is worthy of the iconic comedienne’s legacy. Hundreds of fans gather in Lucille Ball Memorial Park to watch as the tarp is removed from the new statue made by sculptor, Carolyn Palmer. The earlier “scary” statue's creator, Dave Poulin, has said that he received death threats over his artwork.

2016–Twenty-year-old Calvin Riley is shot to death while playing "Pokemon Go" along the waterfront near Ghiradelli Square in San Francisco, California.

2016–Jazz musician, Pete Fountain, dies from heart problems while in hospice care in New Orleans, Louisiana, at age 86. He was a jazz clarinetist who played various traditional and contemporary genres of jazz, including Dixieland, pop jazz, honky-tonk jazz, and Creole music.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Pope Sixtus II; Alfred, Lord Tennyson; Louella Parsons; Lucille Ball; Robert Mitchum; Andy Warhol; Paul Bartel; the atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan in 1945; DeBarge; Sir Cedric Hardwicke; Soleil Moon Frye; The Traveling Wilburys; Rick James; the Ames Stradivarius violin; and a statue of Lucille Ball.

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