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1944–Nazi police discover Anne Frank and her family, hiding in secret quarters above her father’s factory in Amsterdam, Holland. Miss Frank was 15 years old and had kept a diary of her feelings, thoughts, and fears during the two years of hiding from the Nazis. Anne and her sister were taken to a concentration camp following the arrest. Her diary has been translated into 30 different languages, adapted as a dramatic play, and made into a Hollywood film.

221–Chinese Empress, Lady Zhen, dies in Ye, China, at age 38. She was the first wife of Cao Pi, the first ruler of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period.

367–Gratian, son of Roman Emperor Valentinian I, is named co-Augustus by his father and associated to the throne at age eight.

598–Emperor Wéndi of Sui orders his youngest son, Yang Liang (assisted by the co-prime minister Gao Jiong), to conquer Goguryeo (Korea) during the Manchurian rainy season with a Chinese army and navy.

966–Berengar II of Italy dies imprisoned at Bamberg Castle, March of the Nordgau, Kingdom of Germany, at age 66.

1060–Henry I of France dies in Vitry-aux-Loges, France, at age 52.

1265–The army of Prince Edward (the future King Edward I of England) defeats the forces of rebellious barons led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, killing de Montfort and many of his allies.

1290–Leopold I, Duke of Austria, is born in Vienna, Austria. He was co-ruler with his elder brother, Frederick the Fair, from 1308 to 1326.

1306–Wenceslaus III of Bohemia dies of stab wounds in Olomouc, Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic, at age 16. His murder has remained an unsolved mystery, because his assassin was never identified.

1327–In the First War of Scottish Independence, James Douglas leads a raid into Weardale, nearly killing Edward III of England.

1521–Pope Urban VII is born Giovanni Battista Castagna in Rome, Papal States. He was Pope for 12 days in September 1590, the shortest papacy in history.

1532–The Duchy of Brittany is united to the Kingdom of France.

1578–Sebastian of Portugal dies in the Battle of Al Kasr al Kebir, at age 24.

1693–Dom Perignon invents champagne and the techniques used to perfect sparkling wine.

1704–Gibraltar is captured by an English and Dutch fleet, commanded by Admiral Sir George Rooke and allied with Archduke Charles.

1704–Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans, is born at the Palace of Versailles in France. He was a member of the royal family of France, the House of Bourbon, and as such was a prince du sang.

1741–Politician, Andrew Hamilton, dies in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was a Scottish lawyer in the Thirteen Colonies: he did not talk about his parentage, career, or name in the Old World.

1753–George Washington becomes a Master Mason.

1783–Mount Asama erupts in Japan, killing about 1,400 people. The eruption causes a famine, which results in an additional 20,000 deaths.

1789–In France, members of the National Constituent Assembly take an oath to end feudalism and abandon their privileges.

1790–A newly passed tariff act creates the Revenue Cutter Service (the forerunner of the United States Coast Guard).

1791–The Treaty of Sistova is signed, ending the Ottoman-Habsburg wars.

1792–Romantic poet, Percy Bysshe Shelley, is born in Sussex, England. He spent a year at the University of Oxford, but was kicked out for writing a pamphlet entitled, “The Necessity of Atheism.” He married and had two children, but fell in love with Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin and ran off with her to the continent, where he spent most of the rest of his life writing.

1796–In the French Revolutionary Wars, Napoleon leads the French Army of Italy to victory in the Battle of Lonato.

1821–The first issue of The Saturday Evening Post magazine is published.

1821–Luggage maker, Louis Vuitton, is born in Anchay, France. He was the founder of the Louis Vuitton brand of leather goods now owned by LVMH.

1821–Religious leader, James Springer White, is born in Palmyra, Maine. He co-founded the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

1824–The Battle of Kos is fought between Turkish and Greek forces.

1839–Author and critic, Walter (Horatio) Pater, is born in Stepney, London, England. He would spend most of his life at Oxford University and was one of the first English writers to discuss aesthetics. He coined the word “Renaissance” and popularized the phrase “art for art’s sake.”

1854–The Hinomaru is established as the official flag to be flown from Japanese ships.

1855–Walt Whitman publishes Leaves of Grass at his own expense. The book does not sell.

1862–On a picnic, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson tells the story of what happened to a girl named Alice after she fell down the rabbit hole. Ten-year-old Alice Liddell, the model for the heroine, insists that he write it down. He does so and adopts the pen name Lewis Carroll to publish Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

1873–While protecting a railroad survey party in Montana, the U.S. 7th Cavalry, under Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer, clashes for the first time with the Cheyenne and Lakota people near the Tongue River: only one man on each side is killed.

1875–Author and poet, Hans Christian Andersen, dies of liver cancer in Copenhagen, Kingdom of Denmark, at age 70. Andersen's fairy tales, which have been translated into more than 125 languages, have become culturally embedded in the West's collective consciousness, readily accessible to children, but presenting lessons of virtue and resilience in the face of adversity for mature readers as well. Some of his most famous fairy tales include The Emperor's New Clothes, The Little Mermaid, The Nightingale, The Snow Queen, and The Ugly Duckling.

1889–The Great Fire of Spokane, Washington, destroys 32 blocks of the city, prompting a mass rebuilding project.

1892–The father and stepmother of Lizzie Borden are found murdered in their home in Fall River, Massachusetts.

1898–Automotive engineer and racecar driver, Ernesto Maserati, is born in Italy. He won the Italian drivers championship in 1927, and participated in the design of the Maserati A6 after World War II.

1899–Religious leader, Ezra Taft Benson, is born in Whitney, Idaho. He was the 13th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He served as U.S. Secretary of Agriculture during both presidential terms of Dwight D. Eisenhower.

1900–The Queen Mother of Great Britain is born Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon in London, England. She was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. In her later years, she was a consistently popular member of the Royal Family, even when other members were suffering from low levels of public approval. She continued an active public life until just a few months before her death at the age of 101.

1900–Engineer, Étienne Lenoir, dies in La Varenne-Sainte-Hilaire, France, at age 78. He designed the internal combustion engine in 1858. Lenoir's later years were impoverished despite his engine's success.

1901–Jazz trumpeter, Louis Armstrong, is born in New Orleans, Louisiana. He will become the oldest musician to win a Grammy in 1965, when he wins Best Male Vocal Performance for Hello Dolly. He will also receive a Lifetime Achievement Grammy in 1972, and will be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990, as a forefather of rock music.

1902–The Greenwich foot tunnel under the River Thames opens in London, England.

1905–Politician, Abeid (Amani) Karume, is born in Mwera, Zanzibar. He was the first President of Zanzibar.

1906–The Central Railway Station opens in Sydney, Australia.

1906–Marie José of Belgium is born Marie José Charlotte Sophie Amèlie Henriette Gabrielle in Ostend, Belgium. She was the last Queen of Italy.

1914–Germany invades Belgium, and in response, Belgium and the United Kingdom declare war on Germany. The United States declares its neutrality.

1915–Businessman, Warren (Edward) Avis, is born in Bay City, Michigan. He founded Avis Rent a Car System in 1946. He sold the company in 1954, for $8 million.

1920–Journalist and news reporter, Helen (Amelia) Thomas, is born in Winchester, Kentucky. She worked for the United Press and post-1958 successor United Press International (UPI) for 57 years, first as a correspondent, and later as White House bureau manager. She was a columnist for Hearst Newspapers from 2000 to 2010, writing on national affairs and the White House. She covered the administrations of 11 U.S. presidents, from the final years of the Eisenhower administration to the second year of the Obama administration.

1921–Jazz guitarist, Herb Ellis, is born Mitchell Herbert Ellis in Farmersville, Texas. He is best known for his 1950s membership in the trio of pianist Oscar Peterson, and as a sideman at West Coast studio recording sessions.

1924–Diplomatic relations between Mexico and the Soviet Union are established.

1927–Radio station 2XAG, later named WGY, the General Electric station in Schenectady, New York, begins experimental operations from a 100,000-watt transmitter. Later, the FCC regulated the power of AM radio stations to not exceed 50,000 watts on “clear channels” (where few, if any, stations would cause interference with each other).

1927–Documentary photographer, Eugène Atget, dies in Paris, France. Atget's body of work preserved the face of 19th century Paris as its architecture and street-life was being transformed by modernization. The great buildings were being demolished to make way for modern architecture.

1936–Prime Minister of Greece, Ioannis Metaxas, suspends Parliament and the Constitution, establishing the 4th of August Regime.

1940–Larry Knechtel, bass player for Bread, is born Lawrence William Knechtel in Bell, California. He was a member of the “Wrecking Crew,” a collection of Los Angeles-based session musicians who worked with artists such as Simon & Garfunkel, Duane Eddy, The Beach Boys, The Mamas & The Papas, The Monkees, The Partridge Family, and Elvis Presley.

1940–Singer, Timi Yuro, is born Rosemary Timothy Yuro in Chicago, Illinois. Her biggest hits were Hurt and What’s a Matter Baby (Is It Hurting You).

1941–Pete Shotton, boyhood friend of Beatle John Lennon, is born in Liverpool, England. He and Lennon attended Dovedale Infants School and Quarry Bank Grammar School together. Shotton was a member of The Quarrymen, the precursor of The Beatles, and remained close to the group during their career. He built an independent career as a restaurant manager, eventually founding the Fatty Arbuckle's chain of restaurants, beginning with a loan Lennon gave him in the mid-1960s. Shotton is the co-author of John Lennon: In My Life (1983, republished later as The Beatles, Lennon, and Me), which told the story of their friendship, from the age of six until Lennon's death.

1944–Nazi police discover Anne Frank and her family, hiding in secret quarters above her father’s factory in Amsterdam, Holland. Miss Frank was 15 years old and had kept a diary of her feelings, thoughts, and fears during the two years of hiding from the Nazis. Anne and her sister were taken to a concentration camp following the arrest. Her diary has been translated into 30 different languages, adapted as a dramatic play, and made into a Hollywood film.

1944–Comedian and actor, Richard (Jay) Belzer, is born in Bridgeport, Connecticut. He is best known for the role of John Munch on the police drama series Homicide: Life on the Street and Law & Order: Special Victims Unit. He appeared in the films The Groove Tube, Fame, Author! Author!, Night Shift, Scarface, Fletch Lives, The Bonfire of the Vanities, Mad Dog and Glory, and North. His cousin is actor, Henry Winkler.

1946–An 8.0 earthquake hits northern Dominican Republic, killing 100 people and leaving 20,000 people homeless.

1946–Maureen Cox is born Mary Cox in Liverpool, England. She met Ringo Starr at The Cavern Club, where The Beatles were playing, when she was a trainee hairdresser. Starr proposed marriage at the Ad-Lib Club in London, England, on January 20, 1965. They were married at the Caxton Hall Register Office in London, in 1965, and were divorced in 1975.

1947–The Supreme Court of Japan is established.

1947–Klaus Schulze, of Tangerine Dream, is born in Berlin, Germany. During his solo career, he released more than 60 albums over five decades.

1955–Actor, Billy Bob Thornton, is born in Hot Springs, Arkansas. He is best known for writing, directing, and starring in the independent film Sling Blade. He appeared in the films Going Overboard, For the Boys, Tombstone, Indecent Proposal, The Stars Fell on Henrietta, The Apostle, U Turn, Armageddon, Primary Colors, All the Pretty Horses, Waking Up in Reno, Bad Santa, and Love Actually. He was married to actress, Angelina Jolie.

1956–Elvis Presley’s recording of Hound Dog is released.

1957–The Everly Brothers appear on The Ed Sullivan Show, singing Bye Bye Love and Wake Up Little Susie.

1958–The first ever Billboard “Hot 100” chart appears. The number one song is Ricky Nelson’s Poor Little Fool.

1959–Politician, John Gormley, is born in Dublin, Ireland. He was Lord Mayor of Dublin from 1994 to 1995. From 2007 to 2011, he was the leader of the Green Party.

1961–Barack Obama, 44th President of the United States, is born.

1962–Paul Reynolds, of A Flock of Seagulls, is born in Liverpool, England.

1964–Civil rights workers, Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney, are found dead in Mississippi after disappearing on June 21st.

1964–U.S. destroyers USS Maddox and USS Turner Joy report coming under attack in the Gulf of Tonkin.

1964–Fashion designer, Anna Sui, is born in Detroit, Michigan. Her fashion brand includes clothing, shoes, cosmetics, eyewear, and accessories, as well as a line of fragrances. Anna Sui products are sold through her free-standing stores and distributors around the world in over 50 countries.

1965–The Constitution of the Cook Islands comes into force, giving the Cook Islands self-governing status within New Zealand.

1966–Several American radio stations pull Beatles records from their playlists following John Lennon’s “more popular than Jesus” comment.

1969–At the apartment of French intermediary Jean Sainteny in Paris, France, American representative, Henry Kissinger, and North Vietnamese representative, Xuan Thuy, begin secret peace negotiations. The negotiations will eventually fail.

1970–Apple’s press office in London closes down, with the two remaining employees being fired. From now on Apple Corps Ltd’s only task is to collect the ever-flourishig Beatles royalties and deal with the numerous unfinished Beatle problems.

1970–After falling asleep on a woman's porch in Los Angeles, California, Jim Morrison is arrested for public drunkenness. He thought he was sleeping on the porch of a friend.

1970–News anchor, (William) Bret Baier, is born in Rumson, New Jersey. Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, Baier spent five years as the Fox Network Pentagon Correspondent, making 11 trips to Afghanistan and 13 trips to Iraq. Baier became the permanent anchor of the Fox News Network show Special Report on January 5, 2009.

1974–A bomb explodes in the Italicus Express train at San Benedetto Val di Sambro, Italy, killing 12 people and wounding 22 others.

1975–The Japanese Red Army takes more than 50 hostages at the AIA Building that is housing several embassies in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The hostages include the U.S. consul and the Swedish Chargé d'affaires. The gunmen win the release of five imprisoned comrades and fly with them to Libya.

1977–President Jimmy Carter signs legislation creating the U.S. Department of Energy.

1980–For the first time in four years, John Lennon re-enters a recording studio (the Hit Factory) to begin the sessions for the Double Fantasy album, as well as for songs that will later make up his posthumous Milk and Honey album. Wearing a large floppy hat and carrying a briefcase, he is photographed by Paul Goresh entering the studio with Yoko Ono. Producer, Jack Douglas, informs the musicians that these are top secret recording sessions and if news leaks out, the sessions will end immediately. Despite this, news of John’s return to studio recording soon becomes a major news story in the media around the world.

1981–Actor, Melvyn Douglas, dies of pneumonia in New York, New York, at age 80. He appeared in the films Captains Courageous, Ninotchka, A Woman’s Face, Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House, Billy Bud, Hud, Advance to the Rear, The Americanization of Emily, I Never Sang for My Father, One is a Lonely Number, The Candidate, and Being There.

1984–The Republic of Upper Volta changes its name to Burkina Faso.

1985–Peace Ribbons made by thousands of women are wrapped around the U.S. Pentagon, the White House, and the Capitol. Twenty thousand people participate, and the 27,000 panels making up the ribbon stretched for 15 miles.

1987–The Federal Communications Commission rescinds the Fairness Doctrine, which had required radio and television stations to present controversial issues "fairly."

1987–A new 22-cent U.S. stamp honoring noted author William Faulkner goes on sale in Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner had been fired as postmaster of that same post office in 1924.

1991–The Greek cruise ship MTS Oceanos sinks off the Wild Coast of South Africa.

1993–A federal judge sentences Los Angeles Police Department officers Stacey Koon and Laurence Powell to 30 months in prison for violating motorist Rodney King's civil rights.

1994–Derek Leckenby, guitar player for Herman’s Hermits, dies at age 51.

1995–Operation Storm begins in Croatia.

1997–Super-centenarian, Jeanne Calment, dies in Arles, France, at age 122 (and 164 days). She has the longest confirmed human lifespan on record. She lived in Arles, France, for her entire life, outliving both her daughter and grandson by several decades.

1999–Actor, Victor Mature, dies of leukemia in Rancho Santa Fe, California, at age 86. His films include One Million B.C., No, No, Nanette, I Wake Up Screaming, Samson and Delilah, Stella, Million Dollar Mermaid, After the Fox, and Head.

2000–Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, becomes the royal family’s first centenarian, taking the nation’s 100th birthday salute from the balcony of Buckingham Palace in London, England.

2001–Actor and screenwriter, Lorenzo Music, dies of lung and bone cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 64. He is best known for the role of the “never-seen” Carlton the Doorman on the TV series Rhoda. He also was the voice of the animated cartoon cat, Garfield.

2002–Ten-year-old school girls, Jessica Chapman and Holly Wells, go missing from the town of Soham, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom.

2007–NASA's Phoenix spacecraft is launched.

2007–Singer-songwriter, Lee Hazlewood, dies of renal cancer in Henderson, Nevada, at age 78. He scored his biggest work with pop singer, Nancy Sinatra. He wrote the song These Boots Are Made for Walking, which became a big hit for her. Early in 1967, Lee also produced the #1 hit song for Frank and Nancy Sinatra Somethin' Stupid.

2012–Football player and coach, Bud Riley, dies in Penticton, British Columbia, Canada. He served as an assistant coach for the University of Idaho and Oregon State University. He also spent 14 seasons in the Canadian Football League, most notably as head coach of the Winnipeg Blue Bombers from 1974 to 1977, and as a front office executive for the Calgary Stampeders from 1985 to 1987.

2013–Football player and radio host, Art Donovan, dies in Baltimore, Maryland, at age 89. He played for three National Football League teams, most notably the Baltimore Colts. He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1968.

2014–James Brady, American government official and gun control advocate, dies in Alexandria, Virginia, at age 73. He was White House Press Secretary for President Ronald Reagan (1981-1989). Brady was one of four people shot during John Hinckley, Jr.'s March 30, 1981, attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan; he suffered a serious head wound. Brady's recovery was dramatized in the 1991 HBO film Without Warning: The James Brady Story.

2015–During a storm, part of a tent collapses during a performance of the Walker Brothers International Circus at the Lancaster Fair grounds in Lancaster, New Hampshire. Wings of 60 mph winds collapse the tent, killing two spectators and injuring 32 others. Around 100 people were in the tent when the storm hit.

2015–Record producer, Billy Sherrill, dies after a short illness in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 78. He was a songwriter and arranger, who is most famous for his association with country artists, notably Tammy Wynette and George Jones. Sherrill and business partner, Glenn Sutton, are regarded as the defining influences of the countrypolitan sound: a smooth amalgamation of pop and country music that was popular during the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s.

2016–China's unmanned lunar rover Yutu shuts down after exploring the Moon for 31 months.

2016–In Nepal, Pushpa Kamal Dahal takes the oath of office and secrecy as the country's 39th Prime Minister.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Gratian; Pope Urban VII; George Washington becomes a Master Mason; Louis Vuitton luggage; Hans Christian Andersen; the Queen Mother of Great Britain; Marie José of Belgium; Herb Ellis; Timi Yuro; Maureen Cox; The Everly Brothers on The Ed Sullivan Show; Anna Sui, Bret Baier; Melvin Douglas; Herman's Hermits; Lee Hazlewood with Nancy Sinatra; and Billy Sherrill.

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